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The AOC (Angryorangecat)
Senior Member
Username: Angryorangecat

Post Number: 159
Registered: 09-2003
Posted on Thursday, April 08, 2004 - 03:26 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Article from MushWorld

Cultivation of Pleurotus sp. on Coffee Residues

Writer: Fan Leifa / Date :2004-04-01 / hits: 136
All rights of this paper are reserved to the WSMBMP. The official homepage of the WSMBMP also provides this paper in PDF file.

Fan Leifa, Ashok Pandey and Carlos R. Soccol*
Laboratorio de Processos Biotecnologicos,
Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade
Federal do Parana, CEP 81531-970 Curitiba-PR,
Brazil.
* Corresponding author.E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Studies were carried out to cultivate a suitable strain of Pleurotus sp. on coffee industries residues. Based on the preliminary results of mycelial growth on the petri plates containing the extract of coffee husk, a strain of P. ostreatus LPB 09 was selected for detailed studies. The spawn for inoculation was made of sawdust (80%) and rice bean (20%). When coffee husk was used as substrate, the spawn rate of 10-15% appeared efficient and economic and it took seven days to achieve full mycelial growth; the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was 55-65% and first fructification occurred after 20 days of inoculation. The biological efficiency reached at 96.6%. When the coffee spent ground was used as the substrate, the same spawn rate was used as for coffee husk, but it took six days for total colonization; the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was 50-60% and first fructification occurred after 23 days of inoculation. The biological efficiency reached at 90.4%. When coffee leaves was used as the substrate, the spawn rate of 10% was found more efficient and it took only five days for full mycelial growth; the ideal humidity was between 60-70%, but no fruit body was obtained even after prolonged cultivation. When the cultivation was carried out using a mixture of the coffee spent ground (60%) with coffee leaves (40%) as the substrate, the biological efficiency achieved was 55.2%. These results showed that the coffee industry residues, viz. coffee husk, coffee spent ground and coffee leaves can be used for the cultivation of P. ostreatus. The biotechnological advances could lead an effective and economical way to utilize this and improve the economy of the coffee industry.

INTRODUCTION

Coffee processing industries generate several residues, which include coffee husk, coffee spent ground and leaves. Coffee husk is the principal residue among these and is estimated to be generated about one millions tons yearly in more than 50 countries in the world (ICO, 1998). Coffee spent ground is obtained from the processing of coffee to prepare instant coffee by solvent extraction. Although coffee leaves have not been considered as the residue, but fallen leaves in voluminous quantity all round the year pose difficult situation for the coffee culture and also facilitate epidemic of pathogens and pests. These residues practically have not been utilized because of their toxic nature i.e. presence of caffeine, tannins and polyphenols. Their disposal is a major environmental concern. (Adams and Dougan, 1981; Bressani, 1979; Soccol, 1996). Brazil is the largest produce of the coffee in the world (ICO, 1998), and accordingly has the largest quantity of the wastes generated from the processing industries (Tango, 1971; Soccol, 1995). Brazilian industries use the 'dry-process' for the extraction of coffee from the seeds, which is different from the 'wet-process' generally used in Central America. The edible mushroom Pleurotus sp. , considered as a good alternative for proteic quality production foods in tropical countries (Bisaria, 1983; Yang, 1986; Chang, 1989), generally shows good ability of producing fruiting body and simultaneously reducing or degrading the toxic substances present in the substrate (Yang, 1986; Fan, 1990). The production of Pleurotus on the coffee pulp has been studied since 1984 (Martinez e Quirarte, 1984; Lozano, 1990 e Bermudez, 1994), but by that way it produced voluminous waste water during its washing-method of pasteurization of the mushroom production and the humid- processing of the coffee industry, causing environmental pollution. In Brazil, the coffee husk comes from the dry method, full of the nutrients, also full with caffeine, tannins, polyphenols, which is very different in the compositions from that of other countries. This work has objective to make good use of that residue, spontaneously resolve potential environmental problem.Coffee leaf generally is not considered as a residue, but its volume during and after the harvesting difficult the manipulation of the crop, also facilitates epidemic of pathogens and pests. The coffee spent ground is another important residue, concentrated in the instant coffee product factory or scattered in the family during the consume. The spent ground, moistened with a solution of 0,5% yeast extract at a ratio of 1:2 (w/v), was used for experiment of P. ostreatus (Thielke, 1989). This work aims to produce this fungus for human consumption by an economic way based on the coffee residues and explore the possibilities of ration for animals.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Micro-organism Based on the preliminary results of mycelial growth on the petri-plates containing the extract of coffee husk, the strain of P. ostreatus LPB 09 was selected for following studies. The procedure was adopted according to Soccol (1994).

Spawn preparation The sawdust of Eucalyptus sp (80%) and rice bran ( 20% ) were used for the spawn preparation. The mixture was adjusted at the moisture of 60% (Yang, 1986) and then filled in the flask. After autoclave and inoculation, the flask were incubated in the dark at 24 oC . The spawn in the flask was ready for inoculation to objective substrate after 20 days growth when the mixture has turned white totally.

Substrate preparation The coffee husk comes from the factory by dry method and spent ground came from the instant coffee-product factory after sun-dry. The leaf comes from some friends collected after the harvesting. The leaf was grinded after dry. These substrates were moistened with water, generally undertaken 4 or 5 hours before filling the autoclavable plastic bag. The bags were autoclaved at 121 oC for 1,5 hours. When inoculation, the spawn was separated into smallest particles. After inoculation, good mixture between spawn and substrate was made so that mycelial development could be rapid and uniform. After inoculation, the bags were incubated in the dark at 24 oC . mycelial development in the bag was observed and noted each day. Fructification. After 20 days, the bags were transferred to a lighted environmental chamber, the plastic was removed to allow stimulation of air, humidity and light.

RESULTS

FRUCTIFICATION OF P. ostreatus LPB 09 ON THE COFFEE HUSK

When coffee husk was used as the substrate, the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was worked out at the 55-65%; the best spawn rate at 10-15% was more efficient while it took 7 days for full occupation of mycelia; first fructification occurred after 20 days of inoculation; the biological efficiency reached at the 96,5%.

FRUCTIFICATION OF P. ostreatus LPB 09 ON THE COFFEE LEAF

When coffee leaf was used as the substrate, the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was worked out at the 60-70%; the best spawn rate at 10% was more efficient and economic while it took 5 days for full occupation of mycelia; but no fruit body was obtained in the unique leaf substrate.

FRUCTIFICATION OF P. ostreatus LPB 09 ON THE MIXTURE OF COFFEE SPENT GROUND (60%) AND COFFEE LEAF (40%)

When coffee spent ground was used as the substrate, the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was worked out at the 50-55%; the best spawn rate at 10% was more efficient and economic while it took 6 days for full occupation of mycelia; first fructification occurred after 23 days of inoculation; the biological efficiency reached at the 90,35%.

Figure 1 Fructification of P. ostreatus LPB 09 on the coffee husk



FRUCTIFICATION OF P. ostreatus LPB 09 ON THE COFFEE SPENT GROUND

Figure 2 Fructification of P.ostreatus LPB 09 on the coffee spent ground



Figure 3 Fructification of P.ostreatus LPB 09 on the mixture of coffee spent ground (60%) and coffee spent ground (40%)



DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The studies above showed that coffee husk and spent ground are good substrates for the cultivation of this fungus. This material is plentiful in Brazil and available all year round. The techniques for the cultivation is very simple, inexpensive, easily extended to the other region. As to coffee leaf used in this experiment, no fruit body was harvested maybe because of the loosed texture or much more caffeine and tannins. After coffee leaf mixture with coffee husk or spent ground at less than 50% de proportion, the fruit body was obtained and the biological efficiency reached at about 60%. Through the analysis of the fruit body and remains after the fructification, we found that this fungus has not degraded the caffeine but it absorbed and accumulated the caffeine into the fruit body. The content of caffeine in the remains of coffee husk after the growth of mycelia and fructification was reduced up to 60,69%, tannins to 79,17%. The protein content in it was augmented while the cellulose was reduced. Also the texture of the remains was modified to more softly. It is more suitable as ration for animals. According to observation of growth of mycelia of this fungus, the spent ground also can be used as the material of the spawn for inoculation. To achieve more production, maybe additional wheat bran would have a more positive effect. For commercial purpose it must be more effective to replace the laboratory inoculation by a special spawning way or develop a mechanic way. Also more large bag should be used. These results showed that the coffee industry residues, viz. coffee husk, coffee spent ground and coffee leaves can be used for the cultivation of P. ostreatus. The biotechnological advances could lead an effective and economical way to utilize those residues and improve the economy of the coffee industry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Financial assistance from the European Union (grant no INCO DC: IC18*CT 970185) is gratefully acknowledged. CRS thanks CNPq for a scholarship under Scientific Productivity Scheme.

REFERENCES

Adams, M.R. and Dougan, J. 1981 Biological management of coffee processing waste Trop. Sci.

Bressani, R. 1979 Antiphysiological factors in coffee pulp Coffee pulp: composition, technology and utilization IGRC, Ottawa.

Bermudez, R.C. and Traba, J. A. 1994 Produccion de Pleurotus sp cfr. Florida sobre residuales de la agroindustria cafetalera en Cuba Micologia Neotropical Aplicada, Mexico.

Bisaria, R. and Madan, M 1983 Mushrooms: potencial protein source from cellulosic residues Enzyme and microbial technolgy, USA.

Chang, S.T. 1989 Edible mushroom and their cultivation CRC Press, Inc. , Florida.

International Coffee Organization 1998 Total production of exporting members http://www.ico.org/proddoc.htm

Fan, L.F. and Ding, C.K 1990 Handbook of mushroom cultivation Jiangxi science and technology publishing house, Jiangxi, China.

Lozano, J.C. 1990 Produccion comercial del champinon (Pleurotus ostreatus) en pulpa de coffee Fitopatologia Colombiana, Colombia.

Martinez, D. and Quirarte, M. 1984 Prospects of growing edible mushroom on agro- industrial residues in Mexico Boletin de la sociedad Mexicana de micologia, Mexico.

Soccol, C.R. 1994 Contribuição ao estudo da fermentação no estado sólido em relação com a produção de ácido fumárico. Biotransformação de resíduo sólido de mandioca por Rhyzopus e Basidiomacromicetos do gênero Pleurotus Tese de Livre-Docência. UFPR,Curitiba,1994.228p.

Soccol, C.R. 1995 Aplicaçães da fermentação no estado sólido na valorização deresíduos agroindustriais. França-Flash Agricultura.

Soccol, C.R 1996 Aplicaciones Agroindustriales de los Processos de Fermentciones em Medios Solidos. Biotechnologia y Bioingeneria. Sociedade Mexicana de Biotechnologia y Bioengeneria, Mexico.

Thiclke, C. 1989 Cultivation of edible fungi on coffee grounds Mushroom Science XII (parte II) Germany.

Yang, X. M. 1986 Cultivation of edible mushroom in China Agriculture printing house, Beijing, China.




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The AOC (Angryorangecat)
Senior Member
Username: Angryorangecat

Post Number: 160
Registered: 09-2003
Posted on Thursday, April 08, 2004 - 03:30 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Here are the figures 1,2, and 3 mentioned above:

Figure 1 Fructification of P. ostreatus LPB 09 on the coffee husk
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Figure 2 Fructification of P.ostreatus LPB 09 on the coffee spent ground
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Figure 3 Fructification of P.ostreatus LPB 09 on the mixture of coffee spent ground (60%) and coffee spent ground (40%)

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The AOC (Angryorangecat)
Senior Member
Username: Angryorangecat

Post Number: 161
Registered: 09-2003
Posted on Thursday, April 08, 2004 - 04:36 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Hip - thought it might have some relevance to your coffee discussions...
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Hippie3 (Admin)
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Username: Admin

Post Number: 16915
Registered: 02-2001
Posted on Thursday, April 08, 2004 - 04:43 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)


quote:

When coffee spent ground was used as the substrate, the ideal humidity for mycelial growth was worked out at the 50-55%; the best spawn rate at 10% was more efficient and economic while it took 6 days for full occupation of mycelia; first fructification occurred after 23 days of inoculation; the biological efficiency reached at the 90,35%.



interesting
thx
archive material
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rodger rabbit (Skyypilot)
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Username: Skyypilot

Post Number: 2052
Registered: 02-2003
Posted on Friday, April 09, 2004 - 02:34 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)


quote:

Through the analysis of the fruit body and remains after the fructification, we found that this fungus has not degraded the caffeine but it absorbed and accumulated the caffeine into the fruit body.



That's the part I found interesting. Since caffeine is a catalyst for other drugs, it could explain my notice of 'substantial increase' in potency of fruitbodies grown with coffee hydrated grain and compost.
"I feel rowdy and I don't know why. . .Excuse me while I kiss the sky". . .jimi hendrix
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James Stefanzy (Bubblehead)
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Username: Bubblehead

Post Number: 153
Registered: 01-2004
Posted on Friday, April 09, 2004 - 03:04 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)



Right on AOC!
I have gone to look for myself. If I get back before I return, let me know when I'm here...
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jabba (Jabba)
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Post Number: 7
Registered: 03-2004
Posted on Friday, April 09, 2004 - 03:06 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

How to grow oyster mushrooms on spent coffee grains