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Nan (Nanook)
Posted on Tuesday, October 23, 2001 - 06:38 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Mapping the Mycelial Network
A North American Distribution of Psychoactive Fungi
by
John W. Allen, Jochen Gartz and Gaston Guzman.


It's only been forty years since R. Gordon Wasson rediscovered the traditional use of hallucinogenic fungi in Mesoamerica, but in that time more than 174 species of psilocybian mushrooms have been identified worldwide (Allen, Gartz & Guzman, 1998 [1992]). In 1957, only seven species were recognized within the scientific community, and outside of Mesoamerica their existence was known to only a small handful of scientists who investigated their restricted use among several groups of indigenous peoples native to Southern Mexico; primarily within the Mexican state of Oaxaca.

To this day, researchers have identified the existence of hallucinogenic psilocybian mushrooms as far north as Alaska and Siberia in the Northern Hemisphere, and as far south as Chile and Australia in the austral floral zone. Psilocybian mushrooms grow from California in the western United States to China and Japan in the east. Since the ecological and geographical distribution of the more than 160 species of hallucinogenic mushrooms is so vast and diverse, we have decided to present a geographical table of their distribution.

The following article presents a detailed listing of the various species of mushrooms which can be found from state to state in both the United States and from most provinces in Canada. A country by country listing of global distribution is also in the works, and will be available soon.

UNITED STATES

Alabama
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Hesler, 1969)
Psilocybe caerulescens Murr. (Guzman, 1983).
Psilocybe cubensis.

Alaska
Amanita muscaria
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. (Guzmaán, 1983; Stamets, 1996).
Panaeolus ater (Lange) Kühner & Romagnesi. (Pollock, 1976).
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Miller et al., 1982).

Arizona
Gymnopilus sapineus
G. spectabilis.

California(San Francisco to Oregon)
Amanita muscaria
Copelandia cyanescens (Arora, 1986)
Copelandia tropicalis
Gymnopilus *aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Hypholoma popperiana
Panaeolus fimicola
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Psilocybe azurescens Stamets Gartz. (Stamets, 1996). (Introduced).
Psilocybe baeocystis
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe semilanceata Fr.) Kummer.
Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott. (Guzmán, 1983).

Colorado
Conocybe cyanopus (Atkins) Kuhner. (Stamets, 1993).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Panaeolus papilionaceus.

Florida
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Copelandia cyanescens
Copelandia westii
Psilocybe caerulescens Murr. (Jacobs, 1975).
Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe mammilata (Murr.) Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe tampanensis Guzmán & Pollock. (Guzmán, 1983).

Georgia
Psilocybe weilii nom. prov. Guzmán, Tapia & Stamets. (Stamets, 1996).
Hawaii
Copelandia cyanesens (Bk. & Br.) Singer. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
Copelandia tropicalis (Ola¼h) Singer & Weeks. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola’h et Heim) Singer & Weeks. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
Copelandia bispora Male¡on & Bertault. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
Copelandia anomala Murrill. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
Panaeolus subbalteatus (Bk. & Br.) Sacc. (Merlin & Allen, 1993).

Idaho
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofius
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome.
Psilocybe fimetaria (Orton) Watling. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe pelliculosa Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).

Illinois
Pluteus salicinus (Pers.:Fr.) Kummer. (Gartz, 1996).

Indiana
Panaeolus papilionaceus (Gerhardt, 1996).

Louisiana
Copelandia cyanescens (Bk. & Br.) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe caerulescens Murr. (Jacobs, 1975).
Psilocybe cubensis.

Maine
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Panaeolus papillionaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Quel. (Gartz, 1996).
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Singer & Smith, 1958).

Maryland
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Singer, et al., 1958).

Massachusetts
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Smith=G. junonius (Fr.) Orton. (Pollock, 1976).
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Singer, et al., 1958).

Michigan
Conocybe smithii Watling. (Stamets, 1993).
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Hatfield et al., 1978).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteus (Peck) Hesler. (Hatfield et al., 1978).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Gymnopilus validipes (Peck) Hesler. (Hatfield et al., 1978).
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Singer et al., 1958).
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Stamets, 1996).

Mississippi
Psilocybe caerulescens Murr. (Jacobs, 1975).
Psilocybe cubensis
Psilocybe tampanensis.

Missouri
Gymnopilus sapineus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Pollock, 1976).

New hampshire
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis.

New Jersey
Psilocybe graveolens Peck. (Guzmán, 1983).

New Mexico
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Psilocybe azurescens Stamets Gartz. (Stamets, 1996). (Introduced).

New York
Conocybe cyanopus (Atk.) Kühn. (Gartz, 1996).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Gymnopilus validipes (Peck) Hesler. (Hesler, 1969).
Panaeolus fimicola
Panaeolus papillionaceus (Bull. :Fr.) Quel. (Gartz, 1996).
Panaeolus subbalteatus
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Guzmán, 1983)
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. :Secr.) Kummer. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Stamets, 1996).

North Carolina
Gymnopilus aeruginosus
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Singer & Smith, 1958).

Ohio
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteofolius
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Smith=G. junonius (Fr.) Orton.
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Pollock, 1976).
Psilocybe azurescens (Stamets, 1996) (Introduced)
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Guzmán, 1983; Smith & Weber-Smith, 1980).

Oregon
Amanita muscaria
Amanita pantherina
Conocybe cyanopus (Atkins) Kuhner.
Conocybe smithii Watling. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Gymnopilus viridans
Panaeolus castaneifolius
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Ott & Guzmán, 1976).
Psilocybe azurescens
Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe cyanafibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets.
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe fimetaria (Orton) Watling. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Kummer. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe sierrae
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe strictipes Singer & Smith=Psilocybe callosa. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe subfimetaria Guzmán & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).

Pennsylvania
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).

Tennessee
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteus
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Panaeolus fimicola
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Guzmán, 1983).

Texas
Amanita muscaria
Copelandia cambodgeniensis
Gymnopilus aeruginosus
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus luteoviridisrle) Singer. (Alexopolous & Jackson, 1976.
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Panaeolus subbalteatus
Psilocybe cubensis.

Vermont
Gymnopilus spectabilis(Stamets & Gartz, 1996.
Gymnopilus liquiritae
Gymnoplilus spaineus
Psilocybe azurescens (Stamets, 1996)(Introduced).

Washington
Amanita muscaria
Amanita pantherina
Conocybe cyanopus (Atkins) Kuhner. (Stamets, 1996).
Conocybe smithii Watling. (Stamets, 1996).
Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer. (Hatfield et al., 1978).
Gymnopilus brandlei (Hesler, 1969)
Gymnopilus luteofolius
Gymnopilus sapineus
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Gymnopilus viridans Murrill. (Ammirati et al., 1985).
Mycena cyanorhizza
Panaeolus fimicola
Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome.
Psilocybe azurescens
Psilocybe beocystis Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe cyanafibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe fimetaria (Orton) Watling. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Kummer. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe strictipes Singer & Smith=Psilocybe callosa. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott. (Guzmán, 1983).

Wisconsin
Psilocybe azurescens Stamets Gartz.
(Stamets, 1996). (Introduced).

Wyoming
Gymnopilus sapineus (hesler, 1969)
Gymnopilus liquiritae (Hesler, 1969)
Gymnopolus spectabilis (Hesler, 1969).

CANADA

Alberta
Amanita muscaria (Ammirati et al., 1985)
Conocybe kuehneriana (Schalwijk-Barendsen)
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Schalwijk-Barendsen)
Gymnopilus sapineus (Schalwijk-Barendsen)
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Schalwijk-Barendsen)
Panaeolus subbalteatus (Schalwijk-Barendsen).

British Columbia
Amanita muscaria (Ammirati et al., 1985)
Amanita pantherina (Ammirati et al., 1985)
Conocybe cyanopus (Atkins) Kuhner. (Stamets, 1993).
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe cyanafibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets.
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe fimetaria (Orton) Watling. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Kummer. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe sierrae (Stamets, 1996; Guzmán, 1983)
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith.
Psilocybe strictipes Singer & Smith=Psilocybe callosa. (Stamets, 1996).
Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & Ott. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe subfimetaria Guzmán & Smith. (Guzmán, 1983).
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome.

Newfoundland
Psilocybe semilanceata (Redhead, 1989).

New Brunswick
Psilocybe fimetaria (Stamets, 1996)
Psilocybe semilanceata (Redhead, 1989).

Northwest Territory
Amanita muscaria (Ammirati et al., 1985).

Nova Scotia
Amanita muscaria (Ammirati et al., 1985)
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Hesler, 1969)
Psilocybe semilanceata (Redhead, 1989).

Ontario
Amanita muscaria
Gymnopilus spectabilis
Gymnopilus viridans Murrill. (Hatfield et al., 1978).
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & Smith. (Singer & Smith, 1958).
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Pollock, 1976).
Psilocybe caerulipes
Psilocybe silvatica.

Prince Edward Island
Psilocybe semilanceata.

Quebec
Amanita muscaria
Panaeolus subbalteatus Berkeley & Broome. (Pollock, 1976).
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. (Singer & Smith, 1958).
Psilocybe quebecensis Ola¼h & Heim. (Guzmán, 1983).
Psilocybe semilanceata.

Saskatchewan
Amanita muscaria.

Yukon Territory
Amanita muscria.

Greenland
Panaeolus ater
Panaeolus papilionaceus.