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Question on mushroom geneticsAlien PrimateHippie311 1 10-25-03  01:22 pm

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Wa7sum (Wa7sum)
Member
Username: Wa7sum

Post Number: 35
Registered: 10-2002
Posted on Tuesday, November 25, 2003 - 12:07 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

This is a compilation of information derived from another post I started at another messageboard about a half year ago. I hope it's useful to some. :-)

-----------------------------------------------
Mushroom Reproduction

The intent of this post is to produce an understandable explanation and outline of the natural reproduction process of mushrooms.

A spore is much like a seed. It contains all of the genetic information that will grow and produce the fruit of the mushroom. The mushroom is the sex organ of the mushroom that will produce spores or "seeds".

A spore is a nearly microscopic, sometimes single-celled reproductive body that is extremely resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and nonflowering plants.

When spores germinate a thread emerges from the spore casing. When two threads from different spore bodies intersect, they attempt to mate through a hook and clamp connection. A tiny pipe is opened between threads and genetic material is exchanged. The genetically complete threads become hyphae and begin to grow.

Spores have four combinations of sexes. Not all intersecting threads are able to mate. Not all matings will produce fertile mycelia.

Spores form as swellings on one or more subtending hypha in the soil or in roots. These structures contain lipids, cytoplasm and many nuclei. Spores usually develop thick walls with more than one layer and can function as propagules. Spores may be aggregated into groups called sporocarps. Sporocarps may contain specialized hyphae and can be encased in an outer layer (peridium). Spores apparently form when nutrients are remobilised from roots where associations are senescing. They function as storage structures, resting stages and propagules. Spores may form specialized germination structures, or hyphae may emerge through the subtending hyphae or grow directly through the wall.

A single spore contains a half set of chromosomes (known as haploid), much like any reproductive cell (ova or sperm). The spore has a protein sheath (the colored part that we can see) which encases the cell. When optimal conditions surround the spore, it will germinate. This is when it pushes its cellular mass through the protein sheath (at the germ pore) by expansion from re-absorbed water. This mass is a fine filament called the monokaryote (aka: the primary mycelium). It still has a half set of chromosomes. This monokaryote grows (still a single cell with a single nucleus) until it finds a compatible monokaryote to mate with. It does this by touching and dissolving its cell wall while the mate does the same. They effectively just merge to become one cell with 2 nuclei. The clamp connection serves a different function.

This is where things get strange. After the mating, the resultant cell can now reproduce by mitosis, but the cell still has 2 nuclei, as mentioned. So, when it mitoses, the 2 nuclei split for a total of 4 nuclei, but still only 2 cells. Speed of growth is much greater in these dikaryotic mycelial threads, because they don't have to stretch a single cell over a long gap. They simply split into more cells to spread.

Clamp connections form between 2 dikaryotic mycelial masses. This is how one of those white patches (aka mycelium) mates with the other white patches. The dikaryotic mycelia "clamps" together. Thus, reproduction is complete.
"perhaps all knowledge is entirely held within the mind, but perhaps the mind is not held within the body..." --unknown
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Sweetness (Sweetness)
Senior Member
Username: Sweetness

Post Number: 514
Registered: 08-2003
Posted on Tuesday, November 25, 2003 - 12:59 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Saved to file. Thanks Wa7sumUpload
*On the other hand, you have other fingers*
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Hippie3 (Admin)
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Username: Admin

Post Number: 8088
Registered: 02-2001
Posted on Tuesday, November 25, 2003 - 01:01 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

cool, we'll add it to what we already have on the subject.
archive material
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Jesse James (Spacecowboy)
Senior Member
Username: Spacecowboy

Post Number: 356
Registered: 03-2003
Posted on Tuesday, November 25, 2003 - 02:18 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

They can also mate by dikaryotic to monokaryotic.

"Asymmetric genome shuffling involves a fusion between a dikaryotic protoplast and a monokaryotic protoplast. Because only the cytoplasm of the monokaryon is inherited by the progeny, and one of either of the haplotypes of the dikaryon migrates into the progeny, the monokaryon is called a"recipient" and the dikaryon is called a "donor." Accordingly, the resulting fused dikaryotic progenies are heterokaryotic, but their cytoplasm is of the recipient monokaryon."

http://archives.mycotopia.net/discus/messages/5/29498.h tml?1059106285
If it's not broken, then the government will try to fix it until it is.

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Wa7sum (Wa7sum)
Member
Username: Wa7sum

Post Number: 36
Registered: 10-2002
Posted on Tuesday, November 25, 2003 - 05:25 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

I've decided I'm going to rewrite my first post, with the inclusion of a glossary (for some of the terms)... I'll post soon.

Hope everyone is having a lovely evening! :-)
"perhaps all knowledge is entirely held within the mind, but perhaps the mind is not held within the body..." --unknown
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Wa7sum (Wa7sum)
Member
Username: Wa7sum

Post Number: 39
Registered: 10-2002
Posted on Wednesday, November 26, 2003 - 12:34 am:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

-------------------------------------------------- -------------------
MUSHROOM REPRODUCTION
VERSION 2.0
(non-publication)

Notes: This is a compilation of information derived from another post I started at another board about a year ago (11.2002). I hope someone finds it to be useful.



An Explanation: The intent of this post is to produce an understandable explanation and outline of the natural reproduction process of mushrooms. Included with the text is a glossary which should define some of the difficult terminology.

A Quick Analogy: A spore is much like a seed. It contains all of the genetic information that will grow and produce the fruit of the mushroom. The mushroom is the sex organ of the mushroom that will produce spores or "seeds".

The Definition: A spore is a nearly microscopic, sometimes single-celled reproductive body that is extremely resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and nonflowering plants.

Mycelial Reproduction: When spores germinate (reproduce) a thread emerges from the spore casing. When two threads from different spore bodies intersect, they attempt to mate through a hook and clamp connection. A tiny pipe is opened between threads and genetic material is exchanged. The genetically complete threads become hyphae and begin to grow.

Spores have four combinations of sexes. Not all intersecting threads are able to mate. Not all matings will produce fertile mycelia.

Spores form as swellings on one or more subtending hypha in the soil or in roots. These structures contain lipids, cytoplasm and many nuclei. Spores usually develop thick walls with more than one layer and can function as propagules. Spores may be aggregated into groups called sporocarps. Sporocarps may contain specialized hyphae and can be encased in an outer layer (peridium). Spores apparently form when nutrients are remobilised from roots where associations are senescing. They function as storage structures, resting stages and propagules. Spores may form specialized germination structures, or hyphae may emerge through the subtending hyphae or grow directly through the wall.

A single spore contains a half set of chromosomes (known as haploid), much like any reproductive cell (ova or sperm). The spore has a protein sheath (the colored part that we can see) which encases the cell. When optimal conditions surround the spore, it will germinate. This is when it pushes its cellular mass through the protein sheath (at the germ pore) by expansion from re-absorbed water. This mass is a fine filament called the monokaryote (aka: the primary mycelium). It still has a half set of chromosomes. This monokaryote grows (still a single cell with a single nucleus) until it finds a compatible monokaryote to mate with. It does this by touching and dissolving its cell wall while the mate does the same. They effectively just merge to become one cell with 2 nuclei.

A Related Quote: "Asymmetric genome shuffling involves a fusion between a dikaryotic protoplast and a monokaryotic protoplast. Because only the cytoplasm of the monokaryon is inherited by the progeny, and one of either of the haplotypes of the dikaryon migrates into the progeny, the monokaryon is called a"recipient" and the dikaryon is called a "donor." Accordingly, the resulting fused dikaryotic progenies are heterokaryotic, but their cytoplasm is of the recipient monokaryon." (Tan)

Though the clamp connection serves a different function.

This is where things get strange. After the mating, the resultant cell can now reproduce by mitosis, but the cell still has 2 nuclei, as mentioned. So, when it mitoses, the 2 nuclei split for a total of 4 nuclei, but still only 2 cells. Speed of growth is much greater in these dikaryotic mycelial threads, because they don't have to stretch a single cell over a long gap. They simply split into more cells to spread.

Clamp connections form between 2 dikaryotic mycelial masses. This is how one of those little fuzzy white patches (aka mycelium) mates with the other white patches. The dikaryotic mycelia "clamps" together. Thus, reproduction is complete.

Glossary:

Chromosome: A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.

Cytoplasm: The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell.

Dikaryotic: Having two different and distinct nuclei per cell; found in the fungi. A dikaryotic individual is called a dikaryon.

Hyphae: Any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus.

Lipids: Biological molecules soluble in apolar solvents.

Mitosis: The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes. Also called karyokinesis. The entire process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Monokaryote: A cell having only one haploid nucleus.

Mycelia: The vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, threadlike hyphae.

Nuclei: A plural of nucleus. Biology. A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.

Peridium: The covering of the spore-bearing organ in many fungi.

Propagule: Any of various usually vegetative portions of a plant, such as a bud or other offshoot, that aid in dispersal of the species and from which a new individual may develop.

Sporocarps: A multicellular structure in which spores are formed, especially in red algae and certain fungi and slime molds. A receptacle containing sporangia, as in the pepperwort.

Sporulation: To produce or release spores.

Subtending: To be opposite to and delimit: The side of a triangle subtends the opposite angle.

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"perhaps all knowledge is entirely held within the mind, but perhaps the mind is not held within the body..." --unknown
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Hippie3 (Admin)
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 8361
Registered: 02-2001
Posted on Tuesday, December 02, 2003 - 08:10 pm:Edit Post Quote Text Delete Post Print Post Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

very nice.
i'll add mj's info now.

quote:

From The Ascent of Psilocybian Consciousness by John W. Allen and james Arthur inh a new book on mushroom experiences edited by Ralph Metzner: 2003 Fall.

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A MUSHROOM
What is a mushroom and how do they reproduce? Well mushrooms come in many different sizes, shapes and colors.

The majority of fungi or mushrooms as they are commonly referred to belong to either single-celled or multicellular organisms and they obtain their food by direct absorption of nutrients in the soil of the earth. That is, the decomposed manure of four-legged ruminants and/or the decayed leaves, twigs and woodchips of dying plant materials and they do this by feeding on such matter as lignin and humus which are dissolved by enzymes which the fungi secrete through absorption of their thinned celled walls. Mushrooms also bring about the decay and decomposition of all organic matter on our planet
Traditionally classified as a division in the plant kingdom, fungi were thought of as being plants that have no stems or leaves and that in the course of becoming food absorbers they lose the pigment chlorophyll, which is needed for conducting photosynthesis. Approximately 100,000 species of fungi are known.
The study of fungi is called mycology. And R. Gordon and Tina Wasson whose life long interest and love in recording the history of mushrooms and their relationship with mankind, coined a phrase to used to describe this particular field of study as ‘ethnomycology’ (Encarta, 2000).

SPORE DISPERSAL
Well, spores are the seeds of the mushroom. They are found on the gill plates underneath the cap of the mushroom. Once the mushroom cap has separated from its veil, the spores are disbursed by traveling with the passing wind, usually falling first directly beneath the mushroom onto the grass below or onto the mulch and/or topsoil on the ground.
Various species of small animals, insects, and millipedes feed on mushrooms and thus are instrumental in spore distribution. Additionally some groups of insects are known to cultivate mushrooms as food. Notable among these are the ambrosia beetles, tropical leaf-cutting ants, and certain groups of termites. In fact, it has been reported that one such group of termites in Mexico also cultivate a species of entheogenic mushrooms.
Since mushrooms are nonphotosynthetic, that is, lacking chlorophyll, they always feed on live or dead organic matter and when the spores land on a habitable medium they will germinate and grow. One such primary medium of course is the manure of four-legged ruminants such as cattle, horses and sheep.

REPRODUCTION
Most fungi reproduce by spores, which are tiny particles of protoplasm enclosed in walls (see fig. 1). The common mushroom may form 10 billion or more spores on its fruiting body while the giant puffball may produce as many as several trillion.
A process usually forms spores in where the spores form together from a union two or more nuclei within a cell or a series of many cells. And then the spores will germinate into hyphae that have different combinations of the hereditary characteristics of the parent nuclei. The mushrooms discussed in this study are called basidiospores (usually four) and are contained in club like structures known as basidia.
Now, given favorable conditions, the spore’s sprout like seed does what seeds do when planted and the spores form many small fine silk-like hairs, called hyphae, which grow and collectively form what is called mycelium (spawn). Soon the mycelium radiates outward and permeates the material in which it is growing. When there is no more room underground than the mycelium forms into a mushroom and begins to shoot upwards towards the sky.

MYCHORIZIAL AND SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS
Some mushrooms are intimately associated with roots of higher plants forming a symbiotic relationship known as mycorrhiza, a specialized type of hyphal growth in which a portion of the mycelium either wraps itself around the tips of roots, forming a velvety white cover, or penetrates into the cortex of the root. A number of plants seem to be dependent on this relationship for satisfactory development. Certain species of entheogenic mushrooms are prominent in forming mycorrhizae (Encarta 1999). Psilocybe cyanescens is one such mushroom forming a mycorrhizial symbiotic relationship with certain plants found in its environment such as verbenas, strawberry plants, ivy, rose and rhododendrons.

mj






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