How to build an effective low-maintenance fruiting chamber for tropical psilocybin mushroom species
A basic guide to growing Psilocybe Mexicana mushrooms
Building the Shadowbox
This fruiting chamber is easy to build, and requires minimal upkeep. It's ideal for someone with a busy lifestyle and a desire for the convenience of automation. It's designed to effectively grow most tropical psilocybin species, though each species will have slightly different misting/fanning requirements. Without misting, this chamber effectively maintains 95% humidity.
Credit must be given to Elfstone for providing the inspiration to use an aquarium airpump/airstones, and credit goes to Anne Halonium for the inspiration to use blue LED lighting. This tek is not my property, it is merely a consolidation of all of the knowledge I've acquired through rigorous experimentation, and hundreds of hours spent researching others' techniques.
I originally designed this box specifically for the Psilocybe Mexicana species, but I've also grown Cubensis, Panaeolus species and Psilocybe Hoogshagenii very successfully in this chamber. I've spent nearly two years perfecting this design, and I believe it to be the ideal solution for the modern amateur Psilocybe cultivator. I hope that one day a chamber like this will live in the homes of millions of people all around the world, emanating waves of love and empathy that will smash through the levees of fear and ignorance that imprison us and stifle our maturation as a species.
Because I've grown very fond of the Psilocybe Mexicana mushroom, I'll use it as the model for this tutorial. Approximately the same method will also work for Psilocybe Hoogshagenii, and probably many other Mexican varieties that grow in similar environmental conditions.
This guide assumes that one has a basic working knowledge of sterile technique, agar work, and general mushroom cultivation.
- Fine-tip permanent marker
- ISO alcohol for removing ink
- A clear plastic tote, preferably with a sealing lid. If you can't find one with a sealing lid, apply a bead of silicone around the rim of the lid so that it will create a seal when latched. For this tek I will be using a 54 QT Sterilite gasket tote.
- 5V 2 1/4" (2.25") CPU fan (easily acquired at any computer or electronics shop).
- 5V power adapter. Samsung/Android phone chargers are perfect.
- 1/8" and 1/4" electrical heat-shrink tubing.
- Wire strippers or sharp utility knife
- Cigarette lighter
- 1/4" pilot-point drill-bit
- 1/8" drill-bit
- 2 1/4" (2.25") hole-saw
- High-speed drill
- 80gal aquarium pump
- Aquarium airline hosing
- Two aquarium air-stones. I use 5" round stones with a plastic housing, the plain blue ones break very easily, avoid them.
- Blue actinic LED light in 450nm frequency range (not necessary but blue light has been shown to promote primordia formation). A 6500K daylight bulb will do just fine, or ambient daylight from a window (avoid direct exposure to sunlight).
- Two timers, one must be programmable to the minute.
5V CPU fan:
5V Adaptor/phone charger:
Blue LED light:
Set your tote on your work surface and begin making marks in each corner at 3 1/4" from the bottom:
Using your straight-edge and fine-tip marker, make a straight line from mark to mark on all four sides:
Now find the center of the line on each side and mark it. Make marks every 2" from the center on each side:
On one of the sides mark two extra holes for the airlines:
Using your 1/4" pilot point drill-bit, proceed to drill out every hole you marked. Use as little pressure as possible. A high-speed drill is essential here or you will risk cracking the tote.
Now find your center on the back of the tote and make a mark to drill a hole for the CPU fan. Drill the hole about 3.5" to center below the rim of the tote. It's very important to use a high-speed drill here, or you risk cracking the tote:
Place your CPU fan over the hole on the outside of the tote and mark out the holes for the screws on the inside:
Drill them out with the 1/8" drill-bit:
Use your utility knife or scalpel to shave off any excess plastic from all the holes you've just drilled, taking care not to slice through the tote:
Now it's time to wire up the fan to the adapter. Cut off the adapter plug and carefully strip the wires on both the adapter and the fan:
Attach the appropriate wires together. You can plug in the adapter and test the connection to make sure you get it right before shrink-tubing them. Don't forget to slide your heat-shrink tubes on first! The 1/8" tubes go on the individual colored wires, and the 1/4" tubes go on the main black wire. Bend over your wires, slide the shrink-tubing on and use your lighter to shrink them securely:
Now slide the larger heat-shrink tube over the two colored wires and shrink them:
Voila! Now mount your fan so that it blows air OUT of the chamber. Evacuation of air will allow for uniform evaporation from your casing because air will be drawn in through the perimeter holes, rather than blown in, which tends dry out the center of the chamber more quickly than the sides.
Now it's time to rig up the airstones and add your perlite/water. Fill the tote so the perlite comes about a 1/2" above the holes, and fill about half-way with tap water:
A note about Legionnaires' disease: Legionella bacteria can contaminate stagnant water and cause cough, shortness of breath, fever, muscle pain, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and if left untreated, death. It's a good idea to clean your fruiting chamber between grows or every three months, especially if the air pump and fan are left off for any extended duration. Soak perlite in a bucket with diluted bleach solution and rinse before returning it to the cleaned chamber. Adding a splash of bleach to the water in the chamber is also a good measure to prevent the growth of potentially dangerous airborne bacteria that may be exhausted into your home.
Place your chamber in your growing area and hook up your air-pump to the airline tubing.
I place my chamber on a plastic shelf and hang my airpump from a string to minimize vibration and noise
Plug in your fan and light to your programmable timers. The air-pump simply plugs in and stays on 24/7
I like use zip-straps (ratchet straps) to fasten my LED light to the underside of the shelf above . Do whatever you have to do to suspend the light above the chamber:
Congratulations! Your fruiting chamber is complete! Take good care of it and it will last you for years.
Remember to watch the water level. Don't let it evaporate below the tops of the air-stones.
Now, let's grow some mushrooms in it!
Cultivating Psilocybe Mexicana Mushrooms
The following tutorial is a very easy method for growing Psilocybe Mexicana mushrooms. This technique is hardly more difficult than growing Cubensis, and yields a far superior mushroom. This grow was the Jalisco strain, but the same method will work for all the sclerotia-producing Mexicanae species.
Notes about substrates/casing:
Mexicana mushrooms will fruit on manure compost/coir based substrates, as well as coffee/coir, ryegrass seed, rye grain, and probably many others.
I have achieved the greatest success using the following mix:
- 325g coir
- 1/2 cup used coffee grounds
- 1/2 cup wheat bran
- 1/8 cup gypsum
- Add hydrated lime by the 1/8 TSP until a PH of 7-8 is reached (I've found that this is not usually necessary for this substrate).
- Bring to field capacity and sterilize. Vacuum seal in jars and use like any other bulk substrate.
- Case your colonized tray with sterilized 50/50+ casing. Adding 1 TBSP of play sand per quart/liter jar of casing has been shown to increase yields. You want the casing very light and fluffy, no deeper than 1/4". I let the casing fall off a fork and I do not put any pressure on it.
Notes about lighting:
- If you will be using blue LEDs, set your timer to turn on for one hour in the middle of the night. My reasoning is that blue actinic lighting is meant to simulate moonlight in fish habitats, and therefor it stands to reason that mushrooms may benefit more if exposed to the light at night when moonlight would naturally be present. Studies have shown that only brief exposure to blue light is necessary to trigger primordia formation and fruiting direction (lunartropism). Leaving the light on for only one hour prolongs the life of your light. Aside from this, diffuse daylight through a window is sufficient (not direct sunlight!)
- Spawn your colonized grain to a shallow tray and use a trashbag liner to ensure evaporation from the casing only. I mix my substrate/grains in a glovebox to reduce the chance of contamination, but I have found that the Mexicana mycelium is very resilient to contamination if your grain spawn is clean and incubation temperatures are steady, so this may be done carefully in open air.
- I like to use these shallow (2" deep) square plastic PP5 trays with four 1/4" holes drilled in the lids and covered with micropore tape:
- Mexicanae species prefer shallow substrates, 1.5" is ideal.
- I mix my grain spawn/bulk at about a 1:3 ratio. If mixing in plain air, increase to 1:2.
- Full colonization usually takes 8-12 days at 77-80F. I have found that Mexicana prefers 78F.
Here's what a healthy colonized tray looks like:
- Place cased tray in the fruiting chamber.
- Maintain temperatures between 65-80F, 70-75F is the sweet spot.
- Relative humidity should be 95%+ (the perlite and air-stones alone rarely let the RH fall below 95%)
- Set your programmable timer to run the fan for FIVE minutes SIX times per day (five minutes every four hours).
- REMEMBER: Evaporation triggers primordia formation. When you mist, you want the casing just glistening, NOT saturated. I like to run the fan for five to ten minutes immediately after misting, but this isn't necessary. Before misting again, wait until the casing looks light brown and spongey/fluffy (not dry/crusty). Misting two times daily is the maximum requirement. I usually mist once in the morning and once before bedtime.
- Keep up this routine and you'll see pins in 8-12 days.
- After pins reach about 1/2" in average length, you want to reduce fanning to THREE minutes FOUR times per day. It may even be beneficial to cease fanning altogether at this point, but I haven't experimented with this yet.
- Mist lightly two to three times daily, only when the caps look pale. You want to see shiny orange orbs right up until the caps open.
- Maintain 95%+ relative humidity or caps will dry out VERY quickly!
- Harvest mushrooms when the caps become plane and the gills start to darken. The easiest way to harvest is to twist and pull them gently, brush them off and then patch the casing where necessary. They are VERY fragile so be careful. Try to touch them as little as possible to reduce oxidization.
- Fill your trays with reverse osmosis or distilled water overnight (12 hrs), and drain before patching the casing. Resume primordia formation conditions for consecutive flushes.
- Using your scalpel, poke the center of a cap and cut the stipe with scissors as close to the gills as possible. The cap will remain on the tip of your scalpel.
- Place on a sheet of aluminum foil on top of an upside-down plastic tub lid.
- Mist the top tub lightly and place over the lid, but do not seal or moisture will condense under the caps. Leave for 12-24 hours and you'll see nice dark prints. This is best performed in front of a flow-hood or inside of a glove-box.
Now all that's left to do is eat them. They will take care of the rest ;)
"Military shadow boxes were originally simple boxes in which sailors retiring from shipboard service carried their belongings ashore. Superstition held that if the sailor's shadow touched shore before he set foot upon it, he would suffer ill luck. By carrying his belongings, a metaphorical "shadow" of himself, enclosed within the box he could ensure he would touch land before his "shadow"."
Edited by coorsmikey, 01 October 2018 - 08:27 PM.