This was interesting, but I had to wonder why Mr. Fields assumes we should understand the Sun "extremely well" when we still don't even know what's up under most of our own planet's oceans. For all we know there may be solar cycles that take longer to complete than civilization has existed.
The Sun Is Stranger Than Astrophysicists Imagined
A decade’s worth of telescope observations of the sun have revealed a startling mystery: Gamma rays, the highest frequency waves of light, radiate from our nearest star seven times more abundantly than expected. Stranger still, despite this extreme excess of gamma rays overall, a narrow bandwidth of frequencies is curiously absent.
The surplus light, the gap in the spectrum, and other surprises about the solar gamma-ray signal potentially point to unknown features of the sun’s magnetic field, or more exotic physics.
“It’s amazing that we were so spectacularly wrong about something we should understand really well: the sun,” said Brian Fields, a particle astrophysicist at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.