New research: Morning glory contains 5 stimulating LSD-like drugs, soluble only in wine/alcohol, only sparingly soluble in water.
It just so happens that the ancient Aztec and Mayan also added the fresh or dried pulverized morning glory seeds to a drink containing alcohol, they learned this would extract all the stimulating actives from the seeds:
Page 515 "Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants" Christian Ratsch: "The fresh or dried morning glory seeds normally were added by the Aztec and Mayan to alcoholic drinks (sugarcane liquor; c. alcohol), tepache (maize beer, chicha), and balche' (Schultes 1941, 37)."
New research from the 1975 and 2016 morning glory studies is shown in links and pics. 5 LSD-like drugs have been identified & tested on animals from the morning glory seeds (4 soluble only in alcohol & 1 which survives only in acidic medium like wine) that are just as stimulating as LSD, with one being more stimulating than LSD.
(1) Extraction & Identification of Clavine and Lysergic acid alkaloids from morning glories, Weldon L. Witters: 1975:
(2) Identification and determination of ergot alkaloids in Morning Glory cultivars, Nowak, Wozniakiewicz, Klepacki, Sowa & Koscielniak, 2016:
The merck index shows that (1) elymoclavine, (2) agroclavine, (3) chanoclavine & (4) penniclavine are only soluble in alcohol (sparingly soluble in water). (5) Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide (LSH) in the seeds was shown in the 2016 Polish morning glory study to only survive outside the seeds in an acidic environment (example: such as cold sherry wine which is already at ph=4). LSH decomposes in neutral water (plain water), when heated, or in alkaline environments.
Cold sherry cooking wine is recommended as the extraction solution since it is already at ph=4 and is 18% alcohol, and is also very cheap ($5 per bottle). It can be found in the wine isle of any grocery store, and is often on sale. A $9 wine preserver canister can be bought at Amazon which contains a gas mixture of argon, carbon dioxide & other inert gases which can be sprayed into an open bottle of sherry wine before sealing cork to preserve the wine indefinitely, otherwise the acetaldehyde in the wine converts to acetic acid over time, giving the wine a vinegar taste. The wine preserver contains enough gas to last for years of sealing many bottles.
It's a good idea to extract by hammering the (example: 400 to 500) "direct from grower" or "home-grown" seeds in-between a paper plate, then grind the resulting matter in a coffee grinder, then add the mush to a few shots (1 shot = 30ml) of cold sherry wine (already at ph=4) and let it sit in the fridge for 3 hours with occasional swirling, then filter solution thru a cotton ball stuffed into a funnel (this gets all the seed debris out but leaves the actives in solution), and consume the cold sherry wine which contains the actives. This is the method I use and has resulted in mind-blowing powerful visual trips, will post trip reports in part 2.
Not only does sherry wine extract the 5 LSD-like stimulating active drugs from the seeds (see below) without decomposition, but it also cuts down immensely on the amount of "snot" extracted from the seeds, which is quite high when a plain acidified cold water extraction (to preserve the LSH) is used, as alcohol will not extract the "stringy snot like material" from the seeds.
1) elymoclavine = approx 17% of heavenly blue mg = 1958 paper from Yui Takeo showed that when animals were injected with elymoclavine, that they were stimulated MORE than when they were given LSD.
2) agroclavine = approx 25% of heavenly blue mg = 1958 paper from Yui Takeo showed than when animals were injected with agroclavine, that they were stimulated just as much as when they were give LSD.
3) chanoclavine = approx 7% of heavenly blue mg = 1958 paper from Yui Takeo showed that when animals were injected wth chanoclavine, that they were stimulated just as much as when given LSD.
4) penniclavine = approx 25% plus of the heavenly blue mg = 1958 paper from Yui Takeo showed that when animals were injected with penniclavine, that they were stimulated just as much as when given LSD.
5) D-Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide (LSH) = approx 25% plus of the heavenly blue mg. Over time this converts to LSA (Lysergic acid amide). So the seeds may contain a makeup of 1/2 LSH to 1/2 LSA a long while later, like retail rack seeds as the LSH decomposes over time.
6) Ergometrine = approx 5% of the heavenly blue mg.
1.71 LSH detected in seeds direct from growers, only 0.54% LSH detected in seeds off retail racks (see 2016 Polish morning glory study). Best to freeze seeds fresh off vine or direct from growers to preserve their natural high LSH potency, as the longer they sit at room temp or in the heat after being picked (many months without freezing) the faster the LSH (very active at 1.5mg) decomposes to the minimally to non-active LSA.
From the 1958 paper:
"All members of the excitor group produced in all test animals a syndrome of central sympathetic excitation and elicited a stimulation of spontaneous activity. In this group, elymoclavine, was the most potent stimulant and next come agroclavine, triseclavine, penniclavine, and LSD which are almost equipotent, as judged by the degree of symptoms exhibited in the same dose. The arousal effect of elymoclavine or agroclavine on reserpine-sedation was superior to that of LSD."
Animal experiments have shown that elymoclavine, lysergol, LSD and several other ergot alkaloids such as agroclavine, triseclavine, penniclavine, lysergine and lysergene have excitory effects on the central nervous system (Note 1: Yui & Takeo, 1958) as well as lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide (LSH) which also excites the central nervous system in animals (Note 2: Glasser, 1961).
The effects of agroclavine are similar to those of elymoclavine and LSD on rabbits (Yui & Takeo, 1958), indicating that the effect of agroclavine may well be psychoactive in humans as well. It also seems likely that agroclavine, triseclavine, penniclavine, lysergine and lysergene and lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide (LSH) will be psychoactive in humans.
Agroclavine & Penniclavine (found in high amounts in the morning glory seeds & in claviceps paspali infected wild grass Paspalum distichum L, with the labile LSH a close second in both of them) binds to 5-ht1a, 5-ht2a, 5-ht6, 5-ht7, adrenal A2A, A2C, A2D, and most of the dopamine receptors. See "Agroclavine & Penniclavine radioligand (receptorome) data, Planta Med. 1996 Oct; 62(5): 387-92."
LSD binding data is shown below (compare to agroclavine/penniclavine above):
LSD: 5ht1a = 3.73, DMT: = 0.00, psilocin = 2.88, mescaline = 3.61, 5-meo-DMT: = 4.00 (make up >80% of brain 5-ht)
LSD: 5ht1b = 4.00, DMT: = 0.00, psilocin = 2.19, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 2.41
LSD: 5ht1d = 3.70, DMT: = 3.91, psilocin = 3.40, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 3.48
LSD: 5ht1e = 2.62, DMT: = 3.28, psilocin = 3.03, mescaline = 3.16, 5-meo-DMT: = 1.72
LSD: 5ht2a = 3.54, DMT: = 2.58, psilocin = 2.14, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 0.98
LSD: 5ht2b = 3.11, DMT: = 3.91, psilocin = 4.00, mescaline = 3.97, 5-meo-DMT: = 0.69 (sensual & entactogenic)
LSD: 5ht2c = 3.11, DMT: = 3.42, psilocin = 2.52, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 1.55
LSD: 5ht5a = 3.64, DMT: = 3.16, psilocin = 2.83, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 1.84
LSD: -5ht6 = 3.75, DMT: = 3.35, psilocin = 2.82, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 2.73
LSD: -5ht7 = 3.77, DMT: = 4.00, psilocin = 2.82, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 3.69 (novelty, newness)
LSD: ---D1 = 2.34, DMT: = 3.51, psilocin = 3.37, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 2.38
LSD: -A-2A = 2.93, DMT: = 2.75, psilocin = 1.36, mescaline = 2.92, 5-meo-DMT: = 0.00 (aesthetic/beauty adrenal a2a)
LSD: -A-2B = 0.00, DMT: = 3.53, psilocin = 1.57, mescaline = 0.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 0.86 (aesthetic/beauty adrenal a2b)
LSD: -A-2C = 0.00, DMT: = 3.53, psilocin = 1.03, mescaline = 4.00, 5-meo-DMT: = 1.57 (aesthetic/beauty adrenal a2c)
We don't have radioligand binding data for LSH (lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide in the seeds), we only know it is similar to LAE-32 in TIHKAL, in which human experiments were done, at 1.5mg it was stimulating & "LSD like".
It was Gröger who first discovered LSH in the seeds, published in his 1963 paper "Über das Vorkommen von Ergolinderivaten in Ipomoea-Arten". Later also Hofmann then extracted it from the seeds. It probably was in 1967, as Heim wrote in his work from August 1967 that Hofmann said he recently extracted it from the seeds (personal communication, as they knew each other very well).
LSD----------------------------------------CH2CH3-----CH2CH3.....chemical formula (C20 H25 N3 0)
LAE-32-----------------------------------------H------CH2CH3.....chemical formula (C18 H21 N3 0)
d-lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide-----------H---------CHOHCH3....chemical formula (C18 H21 N3 02)
Penniclavine-----------------------------------------------------chemical formula (C16 H18 N2 O2)
Glasser in 1961 noticed animals also became stimulated when injected with LSH. Dr. Glasser said some of the mice even stood on their hine legs and pressed on the noses of the mice in front of them, very peculiar.
Animal tests all point to LSH being an active psychedelic and it is indeed the closest thing to LSD found in nature, far closer than d-ergine. Owsley claims Hoffman himself told him that LAOH is very LSD-like.
(1) The above experiments with mice, rabbits, cats and dogs who were injected with elymoclavine, agroclavine, chanoclavine alkaloids from morning glory can be found in "Neuropharmacological studies on a new series of ergot alkaloids" "Elymoclavine as a potent analeptic on reserpine-sedation" by tohoru Yui and Yuji Takeo, Hyg 911/LSD 494, Jap. J. Pharmacol. 7, 157 (1958). Jap. J. Pharmacol 7, 157-161 (1958).
(2) LSH experiments on animals: A. Glasser, Nature 189, 313 (1961)
(3) No high levels of stimulating LSH, agroclavine, elymoclavine, chanoclavine, penniclavine found in HBWR seeds, only in morning glory seeds. A 2014 forensics paper from Paulke found no LSH in HBWR seeds, but only found LSA & iso-LSA (83-84%) & ergometrine (10-17%) & rest minimal: lysergol, elymoclavine & chanoclavine. We know that MG has centuries of Shamanic use, while HBWR has no history of Shamanic use. HBWR only has history of medicinal use.
Sandgrease: "HBWR has more of a sedative effect compared to MG."
Nogal: "HBWR is more body related while MG seeds have effects more similar to LSD."
(4) Page 515 "Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants" Christian Ratsch: "The fresh or dried morning glory seeds normally are added to alcoholic drinks (sugarcane liquor; c. alcohol), tepache (maize beer, chicha), and balche' (Schultes 1941, 37)."
(5) Aum_Shanti, 2019, "In fresher seeds there's mainly LSH (in relation to LSA). Only in old seeds, the LSA is dominant. This is because the fungi on the plant can only biosynthesize LSH (not LSA), and LSA is then a decomposition product of LSH over time. The fungi on the vines biosynthesize:
From Tryptophan-->chanoclavine-->agroclavine-->elymoclavine-->lysergic acid-->ergometrine-->LSH, which then decomposes over time into LSA."
(6) Psychotomimetics of the Convolvulaceae pg 93: "This particular plant seems to have been more important to the Aztecs in divinity then Peyotl or Teonanacatl, two of their other classical sacred plants."
(7) Jonathan Ott "Pharmacotheon": "Ololiuhqui was far more prominent as an entheogen here in Mesoamerica than those mushrooms; the mushrooms are mentioned only here and there by a few competent chroniclers; yet almost an entire book was devoted to denouncing mainly the ololiuhqui idolatry. The annals of the Inquisition contain many times more autos de fe for ololiuhqui than for mushrooms."
(8) 2016 Polish morning glory study which finds 3x higher amounts of LSH in fresher MG seeds direct from grower/producer vs retail: hxxps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830885/ LSA is a decomposition product of LSH over time (see attached pics from study).
2016 Polish MG study: "Alkaloids abundance in all 3 HB cultivars is comparable, with most significant difference for LSH (Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide), which varies from 0.54 to 1.71 compound to IS ratio. As has been demonstrated in this study, LSH is a labile compound, and therefore the variances in its concentration may be due to different age and storage conditions of the seeds rather than difference in plant metabolism. Indeed, seeds IT-HB2, which express highest concentration of LSH, were bought directly from the producer, whereas seeds IP-HB1 were purchased in retail stores."
(9) Researchers showed in 1961 that Claviceps paspali produces high amounts of LSH in culture: "Production of a new lysergic acid derivative (LSH or Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide) by a strain of Claviceps paspali, Stevens & Hall". Likely entheogen used to serve hundreds of initiates at Eleusis in ancient Greece: see pic of Eleusian Mysteries & center for Eleusis Telesterion (initiation Hall for initiates...ALL men, women & even slave were invited) in ancient Greece, and pic of people who would attend in ancient Greece.
Chemist Peter Webster wrote that fresh Greek claviceps paspali infected paspalum grass which grows adjacent to Eleusis in the famous Rarian Plane contains the exact same alkaloids as found in the fresh Aztec morning glory. Albert Hofmann wrote that Claviceps paspali due to it's similar makeup to the Mexican morning glory could also have been the likely entheogen used at Eleusis to serve hundreds of people.
(10) Krystle Cole from the book "Lysergic":
"Isn't Ergot what Socrates used to take at Eleusis?" I thought it was kind of cool to be taking something that the founders of our democracy used to take, but that our current democracy has made illegal.
LSD chemist Todd Skinner replied "Yes". Todd had prepared 6 jugs of ergot wine and stored them for many years.
Krystle Cole's "ergot wine" experience (several pages long) in the book "Lysergic", reported that she saw constantly rotating holographic Sanskrit or Arabic & Zodiac symbols, floating in a circle around Todd's head.
(11) sample morning glory wine trip report from Erowid: Morning Glory & Alcohol by Psychopsilocybin:
Edited by tregar, 14 November 2020 - 10:42 PM.