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Neem: Why It Works And What It Does


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#1 Guest_cap_*

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Posted 06 November 2006 - 08:21 PM

by I.M.Boggled


. . . .

REPULSION, REGULATION, DISRUPTION AND DETERRENCE

- SEVEN DISTINCT MODES OF ACTION

Neem limonoids produce seven distinct modes of action, and they include the following:

1) Feeding Deterrence:
This is the most commercially significant property of neem. The presence of Azadirachtin, Salannin and Melantriol on the leaf surface disrupts the gut of leaf-eating insects, creating the equivalent of a vomiting sensation. The associated feeding deterrence is so profound that, after experiencing the sensation, many species will never eat again.

2) Insect Growth Regulation:

Ecdysis or moulting is the shedding of skin to facilitate the growth stages of larvae or nymphs, and it is governed by the enzyme Ectyzone. Neem suppresses Ectyzone, and the insect becomes trapped in the larval stage, eventually causing death. If there are insufficient neem triterpenes present, the larvae may enter the pupal stage, but dies soon after, and if in the presence of very low neem concentrations, the adult emerges from the pupal stage sterile and malformed.

3) The disruption of mating and sexual behaviour:
It is not known if independent hormonal disruption is responsible for this complete confusion in mating routines or if the insects just feel so bad that they are sexually incapacitated. Whatever the cause, the end result is a population retarding effect and is probably quite hilarious.

4) Oviposition Deterrence:
Neem also reduces pest populations by deterring females from laying eggs - a phenomenon called oviposition deterrence.

5) Repulsion:
Neem oil contains several sulfur-like compounds that can repulse insects in much the same way as garlic sprays. Some insects are particularly susceptible to this repulse response, while others cannot detect neem by taste and do not find it repulsive.

6) Adult sterilisation:
Most susceptible males are sterilised by neem compounds, and many of the female species are similarly affected. The sterilisation of eggs has also been recorded.

7) The poisoning of larvae and adults:
As previously mentioned, neem does not have a universal knockdown capacity. However, there are some species, including mosquito larvae, fruitfly and headlice, which are killed on contact.
There are also other less important modes of action, which include the blocking of the ability to ‘swallow’ and the inhibition of the formation of chitin (the hard section covering the exosceleton).

NEEM-AFFECTED INSECTS

Some 390 insect species are affected by neem extracts, including many that are resistant to conventional pesticides.
There is such a complex interrelationship between the many components of the neem compound that, to date, there has never been a recorded case of developed neem resistance.
This may not prove the case when refined Azadirachtin products hit the market in the future.
When man tries to dilute and simplify natural phenomena, there are often unanticipated consequences.

:)

"Rose Defense" or "Safer BioNeem" brands of "70% Neem Oil" are commonly available online...
and even better, if one checks their local conventional retailers shelves, they just very well may find it, as naturally sourced Neem's popularity continues to soar across the board in all the various gardening segments of society...

AAh yes, when it comes to Homegrown & critter free consumable produce...
Neem Oil comes highly recommended as "it be the schiznit baby!"

. . .

LOW KNOCKDOWN - HIGH SHUTDOWN

Neem contains several active ingredients, of which the most important is Azadirachtin.
It has been estimated that Azadirachtin accounts for up to 90% of the bioactivity of neem, but there is so much synergism at work in this pesticidal cocktail of four major and twenty minor active components, that it is impossible to quantify a percentage.

Neem compounds bear no resemblance to synthetic pesticides.
They are composed only of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen and contain none of the chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur or nitrogen atoms found in synthetic chemicals.
Chemically neem resembles steroid compounds like cortisone and oral contraceptives, and there is a very different mode of action compared to the conventional “Wham, bam, thank you Maam!” of the toxic knockdowns.
In most cases neem extracts are not knockdown killers.
Instead they create hormonal disruption, which prevents the insect from feeding, breeding or metamorphosing.
It is a far more subtle process, which eventually prevents the insect from causing further damage.
It is a hormonal shutdown rather than an instant knockdown.


HORMONAL LOOK-ALIKES ALLOW EASY ACCESS

The active compounds in neem belong to a general class of natural products called ‘Triterpenes’, or more specifically, ‘limonoids’.
There are at least ten limonoids in neem, but the most researched of these are Azadirachtin, Salannin, Meliantriol and Nimbin.


Azadirachtin is the most significant of these.
Thirty years of research suggest that Azadirachtin is one of the most potent growth regulators and feeding deterrents ever tested.
It is in fact so potent that quantities as low as 1 ppm (part per million) will totally repel some insects.
Meliantriol and Salannin are powerful feeding inhibitors, while Nimbin has been found to have antiviral activity.

Neem compounds have a very similar shape and structure to several critical insect hormones.
This look-alike feature tricks the insects’ bodies into absorbing the neem compounds as if they were the vital hormones.
The neem infiltrators shut down the endocrine systems, and the hormonal chaos that follows sees populations plummet.



1 Teaspoon (5 ml.) to a quart (Liter) of water is the usual recommendation...
as a "Soil Drench." A few drops of liquid dish soap to emulsify the solution.

If using Soil/Organics and biological activity is still desired, do not use dishsoaps labeled antibacterial as they contain the chemical "Triclosan" which is very effective as an anti-bacterial, anti-Fungal agent)

Research has shown that neem has some systemic action in plants, meaning that the plants absorb it. When applied..., neem can be taken up by the roots of some plants and translocated to other parts of the plant.
Neem may remain active in the soil up to four weeks, depending on soil conditions.

When neem is applied to plant foliage, its systemic action is limited—new foliage must be sprayed periodically for adequate protection.
http://pearl.agcomm....ental/f6433.htm

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_IG018

:)

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#2 Guest_cap_*

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Posted 06 November 2006 - 08:25 PM

Neem TreeThe Neem Tree: A Miracle Plant
By Dr. Tahir Mahmood, Grotek Manufacturing Inc.

History

Neem is a tropical evergreen tree native to the Indian sub-continent. This tree has a history of growing up to 50 ft. high and has been used for many different purposes for more than 4500 years. The earliest documentation revealed usage of various parts of Neem tree like fruit, leaves, seed oil, roots and bark for their benefits to animals and human beings due to its medicinal properties. Its leaves and extract are well documented as medicine for skin diseases and as the best available tonic for the skin and external subcutaneous tissues. It is popularly known in India as village Dispensary (Medical Clinic). In the first millennium BC it was considered to be the remedy for all sorts of diseases in living beings. As scientists searched in dangerous rainforests and inaccessible areas of the world looking for useful plants, this tree was growing in front yards of houses and colleges, in every town, city and village of south Asia and Africa. It was just the familiarity that left this plants' miracles/importance hidden until a few scientists took a closer look at this ancient tree. After some observation, they found it extremely important in day to day life for curing all types of illnesses in humans and animals. Since then, Neem tree came to the attention of researchers around the world in order to explore its properties and usage in different areas of interest.

Importance of Neem Tree

Out of all the plants that have proved useful for humanity, a few are distinguished by their astonishing versatility. Among these, Neem tree (commonly known as Azadirachta Indica) is one of the most important ones found in arid regions of world. From its roots to its spreading crown, the tree contains a plethora of important compounds useful for animals, people and plants. Neem tree's virtues are, to a large extent, attributable to its chemical constituents.

Different parts of Neem tree and its oil extracted out of seed is being used in different parts of the world for different purposes. Two decades of research has revealed promising results in many disciplines like medicines, cosmetics and agriculture etc. This obscure species may be on the cusp of bringing enormous benefits to countries both poor and rich. Even some of the most cautious researchers are saying that Neem deserves to be called a wonder plant. These days many types of products are being consumed in daily life around the world made out of Neem and it's by-products. I will discuss briefly the usage and importance of Neem tree in some of the disciplines in the following paragraphs.

Medicines

Herbal medicines are used for treatment of different types of diseases in all parts of world. Neem tree is an important part of these herbal medicines and is mentioned in many ancient texts dealing with medicines. Traditional Indian medical authorities place it at the pinnacle of their pharma copeia. Due to extraordinary properties of Neem, its bark, leaves, flowers, seed and fruit pulp were and are now used to treat a wide range of diseases and complaints ranging from leprosy, diabetes, ulcers to skin disorders and constipation etc. Scientists from the developed world are working extensively in exploring Neem tree and its properties to formulate new antibiotics.

Cosmetics

Different parts of Neem tree are being used extensively in manufacturing of soaps, skin creams/lotions, shampoos, toothpastes, beauty aids and toiletries. The Neem twigs are more commonly being used as antiseptic tooth brushes. In most cases Neem oil/extract is being used for making these cosmetics like soaps and tooth pastes etc.

Agricultural

It is in agriculture where most of the scientists focused their research for exploring the benefits of Neem for crop production. Because of those findings, Neem oil, Neem cake, leaves and other parts of Neem tree are being used quite extensively in the agriculture sector in different parts of world. Its main uses in the agriculture sector include being an insecticide in food storage, as soil amendment, fertilizer efficiency enhancer, and very effective foliar pesticide.

Food Storage

In all areas of tropics, much of the harvested food is lost during storage because of worms, beetles and other infestations. People do not prefer to use chemicals insecticides on stored grains in general and more specifically for food stored for their own consumption. For centuries, Neem oil has provided farmers with an effective remedy against such insects. A very light coating of Neem oil protects stored food crops for up to 20 months from all types of infestations with no deterioration or loss of palatability. Neem fresh leaves are also used on small scale for storage of food grain at home quite effectively, but this is being done on a small scale.

Soil Amendment

Neem cake (after the oil is extracted from the seed kernels, the left over material is called cake) has been used for many centuries throughout Indian sub continent as an effective soil amendment. Farmers of this region have learned through experience that using Neem cake in soil produces larger and healthier plants that have few or no insect/disease problem. Several studies were also conducted by different scientists to find out why plants grew better in soil mixed with Neem cake. Their results revealed that Neem cake is richer in plant available nutrients than manures; it killed damaging nematodes, promoted large population of earth worms, helped keep nitrogen in the soil available for plants and provide significant protection from insects. Farmers of that region have a clear idea that by killing nematodes in soil, a major plant pest is eliminated from soil. Nematodes are very harmful for plants. Nematodes suck juice from roots of plants to the point where they are unable to supply sufficient nutrients to the plant. Then the plants look unhealthy, fail to grow and may eventually die despite sufficient food, water and care.

Use of Neem cake in soil also helps keep soil loose by promoting earthworm activities in soil, which helps in absorption of nutrients and water by plants more easily and efficiently. Neem cake allows plants to develop a strong defense system against these pest attacks by initially protecting plants from insect/pest. Secondly, Neem compounds absorbed through soil enhance these natural defense systems with proven nutritive, antifungal and insect repellent properties of Neem.

Pesticide (Insecticide and Fungicide)

Although Neem extract/oil has been under use for centuries for control of insects, the major work on Neem oil and its impact on insects started in 1959. A German Entomologist observed that during a plague of locust in Sudan, the only greenery left untouched despite the devastation by billions of winged locusts was the Indian Neem tree. He noticed that although the locust had landed on the tree and its leaves, they did not feed. The anti-feedant properties of Neem tree, which was well known in India, was the reason. This attracted the attention of the developed world which triggered research on such a powerful tree.

The natural properties of Neem oils pose no danger of toxic reactions in the environment. The seeds and leaves are now the source of a class of pesticide named soft pesticides (Non Toxic and Natural). The main mode of action of Neem oil is anti-feedant. Insects pests usually refuse to eat any plant covered with Neem oil. Its other derivatives include insect repellent and a reducer of an insect ability to reproduce. Its active ingredient, Azadirachtin, is similar to insect hormone (Ecdysones) which have naturally insect growth regulators which then interfere with the molting (shedding and regeneration of outer body layer) and metamorphosis (a process of insect birth). It is natural safe and biodegradable product which is extensively used in various parts of world as insecticide.

Millions of pounds of synthetic insecticides are being used on residential gardens and lawns and crops every year through out the world. Usually they are quick in action and kill any insect on contact, including the beneficial insects. Although these synthetic insecticides are being used specifically for insects, they can harm any living being who lives or pass through that area where spray is being used for insect killing. Almost all manufacturers of the insecticides have a caution of do not step on grass for at least three days after spray and keep pets, children away from that area. On the other hand, Neem oil is non-toxic to animals and people. Areas sprayed with Neem oil are not poisonous areas to be avoided for days. Only insects that are harmful for plant growth are affected by Neem oil, leaving honey bees and other beneficial insects unharmed. In fact, with the spray of Neem oil the average number and size of earth worms increase in sprayed area compared to unsprayed areas. There is growing awareness among people to use safe and natural products that can serve the purpose without effecting the environment.

Neem oil can also provide protection against fungal diseases. Spray of Neem oil (it has been observed with several experiments) on plants prevent the outbreak of Powdry Mildew disease quite effectively and in some cases better than any commercial product. Its use can also stop the production of Aflatoxin (a very toxic Carcinogenic substance in food grains) by inhibiting the activity of mold to produce this substance. It is considered most effective as a fungi preventive and as a cure after the disease is established on plants.

The plant kingdom is a vast storehouse of biologically active chemicals for pest control. Insects are less likely to develop resistance to this botanical control as their activity is multifaceted. Plant based insecticides are safer to non-target organisms. Neem oil is effective in controlling more than 200 species of insects pests reported by various researchers around the world and no other plant or synthetic substance has such a diverse action on insects. Scientists after studying more than 200 plants exhibiting insecticidal properties reach the consensus that Neem is the most effective and environmental friendly cure for the insects and diseases. At the same time no other tree has received as much attention as Neem in recent past. Its popularity is increasing day by day all over the world where people love to have alternatives to chemical/toxic pesticides. Many scientific institutions and agro industries are trying to make more effective pesticides formulation based on Neem. Use Neem Oil type soft pesticides that can not only serve the purpose but also does not pose any threat to the environment.

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Posted 06 November 2006 - 08:32 PM

what does all this stuff mean?
basically neem is to be looked at as a preventative, rather than a control.
as all it really does is interfere with the pest's molting and metamorphosis procesess,
its action as a 'control' or 'to fight an outbreak' takes time,
and with cannabis, neem shouldnt be applied during the last trimester of flower
that is, if you dont want it noticable in the end-product. :) its an oil,
once you experience it you will agree its not something you want all over your buds you plan on smoking
hope this helps clarify the misnomer and myth out there regardin the use of neem oil :)

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Posted 06 November 2006 - 08:44 PM

Einstein Oil is a brand of organic neem oil pesticide preferred by the pro's.
it is a bit pricy, at about 50 bux for the large [16oz] bottle, but by far the best.
you can even buy the solid form of neem if you can find it, and make a foliar spray as needed

there are other brands, this one is just extra special :D

Einstein Oil contains the finest quality, first extraction, cold-pressed neem oil. It is also enhanced with several other potent herbal ingredients that greatly increase its effectiveness. All ingredients are 100% non-toxic. Mix 1/2 - 2 tsp. per quart of water.

Neem works by interfering with the insect's ability to molt. If a growing insect is not able to molt, it will not reach sexual maturity and will therefore be unable to mate and reproduce. This means that within a few life cycles, all the insects will die of old age and there will be no more eggs left to hatch. Give it a try...it will solve your bug problems once and for all!


i also like and use Bon-Neem, by Bonide, for all outdoor plants
and when i cant afford the expensive stuff :crazy1:
this is a 2-in-1 (neem + insecticidal soap) that takes care of adults as well

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#5 SquishFace

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Posted 07 November 2006 - 03:07 AM

bravo:cool:

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Posted 09 November 2006 - 04:14 AM

hope it helps

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Posted 11 November 2007 - 11:52 PM

some 'chive material here, hip... if u deem it so that is ;)

:heart:

#8 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 11:44 AM

Nice info cap!

I have read that the products containing hydrophobic extract of neem, (ex.. fertilome rose flower, or triple action) do not contain azadirachtin. Not sure why this would be but...If you already noted that I must've missed it. Both of these seem to have a fairly quick knockdown effect also, and have been used not only as a spray, but as a total submersion dip, and soil drench with some success.( the latter two in mild strength doses).

Currently giving Dyna 100% Neem Oil a try in 3 day intervals.

Neem rocks:headbang:, but you have to stay vigilant, and keep on those pest for complete control.



#9 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 10:40 PM

MATERIAL NAME: Neem (azadirachtin, neem oil, neem oil soap)
MATERIAL TYPE: Botanical
U.S. EPA TOXICITY CATEGORY: III, “Caution” (Neemix carries a
“Warning” signal word)
USDA-NOP: considered a non-synthetic botanical pesticide; its use is
regulated. Preventive, cultural, mechanical and physical methods must be
first choice for pest control, and conditions for use of a biological material
must be documented in the organic system plan (NOP 2000).
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION: Neem products are derived from the
neem tree, Azadiracta indica. The neem tree is native to southern Asia and
can grow in most arid sub-tropical and tropical areas of the world (Copping
2001). Called Sarva Roga Nirvani, a “cure of all ailments” in Sanskrit, neem
has been used for centuries for medical, cosmetic and pesticidal purposes.
Although Indian scientists were researching the use of neem as early as the
1920s, there was little global attention until a German entomologist noticed
in 1959 that neem trees in the Sudan resisted an attack of migratory locusts.
Since that time, there has been considerable research and commercialization
of neem products (Ruckin 1992).
Neem pesticide products are usually made by crushing neem tree seeds,
then using water or a solvent such as alcohol to extract the pesticidal constituents.
Other products are made from cold-pressed neem seed oil or from
further processed neem oil. Neem products produced with different extraction
techniques may result in different biologically active chemicals (or
amounts of chemicals) being present in a product. Thus, the efficacy of different
products may vary. Neem cake is the residual seed meal remaining
after extraction of oil from seeds. This is often sold as a fertilizer product.
We group neem products into three classes:
Azadirachtin-based products
Includes Agroneem®, AZA-Direct®, Azatrol®, Ecosense®, Ecoside®
(has both oil and azadiractin), Neemix®.

#10 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 10:53 PM

ORGANIC RESOURCE GUIDE
Neem oil products:
Trilogy® (also packaged as Triact, Green Light NeemConcentrate, and Green Light Rose Defense) is neem oil that has
had the azadirachtin and at least some other components separated
from it. It is called “clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil”. 100%
cold pressed neem oil is also being sold as a “plant wash,” but has
no pesticide label.
Neem oil soap products
Organica® K+ Neem is derived from neem oil that is saponified
to create potassium salts of fatty acids, which are considered to
be soap. It also contains 75% inert ingredients.
HOW IT WORKS: Pesticide active ingredients are based on neem seed
extracts, including azadirachtin, neem oil and neem oil soap. Azadirachtin,
one of the more than 70 compounds produced by the neem tree, acts mainly
as an insect growth regulator, but also has anti-feedant and oviposition
(egg-laying) deterrent properties. First isolated in 1968, azadirachtin is
thought to be the most bioactive ingredient found in the neem tree; however,
such speculation may be due to it having been investigated more thoroughly
then the other compounds (Thacker 2002, Quarles 1994). Most
commercially available neem products list azadirachtin as the primary active
ingredient. Such products are broad-spectrum insecticides, which work by
contact or ingestion. As an insect growth regulator, azadirachtin prevents
insects from molting by inhibiting production of ecdysone, an insect hormone.
Azadirachtin is chemically similar to ecdysonlids, the hormones
responsible for triggering molts (Weinzierl and Henn 1991). As an antifeedant
it may cause an insect to stop feeding after ingestion due to secondary
physiological effects. As an egg-laying deterrent, volatile compounds
from neem may repel some insects from depositing eggs on a plant surface.
There is evidence that other compounds found in neem have insecticidal
attributes that contribute to a given product’s efficacy. A study conducted at
Washington State University in conjunction with the W.R. Grace and
Company (manufacturers of the neem product Margosan-O at the time)
found that products containing both azadirachtin and neem oil have greater
efficacy in controlling aphids than either ingredient alone (Stark and Walter
1995). They hypothesize that neem oil may help spread the chemicals on
both plant and insect surfaces and allow them to penetrate into the insect
more effectively. Neem seed oil is formulated and used somewhat like other
horticultural oils and controls some foliar diseases as well as certain insects
and mites. The oil is also made into an insecticidal soap, which probably
acts similarly to other insecticidal soaps by disrupting insect membranes.

#11 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 10:57 PM

Continued: The mechanisms for neem’s effects on mites (Miller and Uetz 1998), snails
(Mostafa and Abdel-Megeed 1996), and disease organisms (EPA) have not
been reported.
Active neem constituents can be absorbed through plant roots and systemically
move upward through the plant through xylem tissues (Gill and Lewis 1971, Larew 1988, Nisbet, et al. 1993, Osman and Port 1990). This works
best when sufficient quantities are applied to the root zone. Systemic effects
are much less apparent from foliar sprays. Different plant species also differ
widely in their ability to have systemic effects from neem. Neem constituents
last much longer within the plant than when sprayed on the leaves.
However, over time they will be diluted by growth.
FORMULATION AND APPLICATION GUIDELINES
GENERAL GUIDELINES: Neem products are generally sold as emulsifiable
concentrates (EC). Neem oil soap is sold as a water-soluble liquid
concentrate. While Copping (2001) reports no known incompatibilities with
other crop protection agents, phytotoxicity may be a problem when combining
neem oil or soap products. Read labels for specific application guidelines
including determination of re-entry interval (REI) and pre-harvest interval
(PHI). Range of efficacy will depend on the susceptibility of species in
question and environmental conditions at time of application. However these
are points to follow:
1) Make multiple applications. Frequent applications are more effective
than single sprays because neem does not persist well on plant surfaces.
Like most other botanically derived materials, it can be rapidly
broken down by sunlight and washed away by rain (Thacker 2002).
2) Use against immature insects. Azadirachtin-based insecticides act
on immature stages of insects more effectively than on eggs or
adults. To reduce a build up of populations it is important to make
treatments to crops targeting insects in an early stage of their life
cycle. For instance, neem would likely have little effect on an infestation
of striped cucumber beetle adults; however if applied to potato
plants early in the season, it has been shown to greatly reduce larval
activity of Colorado potato beetle.
3) Begin applications before pest levels are high. Antifeedant and egglaying
repellant effects show best results in low to moderate pest
populations.

#12 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 11:00 PM

cont: 4) Neem is reported to work best under warm temperature conditions
(Schmutterer 1990).
5) Neem’s systemic properties suggest that applying it to transplants just
before planting to the field could be an effective and inexpensive way
to control certain pests. Similarly, applying neem with relatively large
amounts of water, in directed sprays over the rows of small seedlings,
could be a very efficient method of application. In one study, neem
applied through a drip irrigation system significantly reduced lettuce
aphids on romaine by over 50% (Palumbo et al. 2001). Availability and Sources:
Widely available from garden and/or farm supply mail order companies.
OMRI LISTED:
Azadirachtin-based
Agroneem (Agro Logistic Systems Inc, USA)
AZA-Direct (Gowan Company, USA)
Azatrol (PBI Gordon, USA)
Concern Garden Defense Multi-Purpose Spray (Woodstream Corp.,
Can.)
Ecosense (Agro Logistic Systems Inc, USA)
EcoSide (Agro Logistic Systems Inc, USA)
Neemix 0.25 Botanical Agricultural Insecticide/Insect Growth
Regulator (Certis USA)
Neemix 4.5 Botanical Agricultural Insecticide/Insect Growth
Regulator (Certis USA)
Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray (Woodstream Corp, Can.)
Neem Oil
Triact 70 EC (Certis, Olympic Horticultural Products, USA)
Trilogy Broad Spectrum Fungicide/Miticide (Certis USA)
Green Light Neem Concentrate (Green Light Co., USA)
Green Light Rose Defense Concentrate (Green Light Co., USA)
Neem Oil Soap
Organica® K+ Neem Insecticide - Fungicide (Organica BioTech Inc.)
NON-OMRI LISTED:
AZA 3% EC (Amvac, USA)
Amazin 3% EC (Amvac, USA): Mushrooms
Azatin 4.5WP (Certis USA)
Azatin-EC (Certis USA)
Azatin Technical (also 15%, 20%) (Certis USA)
Azatin XL (Certis USA; Olympic Horticultural Products)
BioNeem (Woodstream Corporation, USA)
Ecosin 3% EC (Amvac, USA)
Fortune Aza 3% EC (Fortune Biotech Limited, India)
Fortune Aza Technical Botanical Insecticide (Fortune Biotech Limited,
India)
Margosan-O Botanical Insecticide Concentrate (Certis, USA)
Neemazal T/S1. 2% EC Insecticide (E.I.D. PARRY LTD., INDIA)
Neemazal Technical (E.I.D. PARRY LTD., INDIA)
Nimbecidine (T. Stanes & Company Ltd., India)
Ornazin 3% EC (Amvac, USA;SePro)
SuperNEEM 4.5-B Botanical Insecticide (Certis, USA)

#13 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 11:08 PM

EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH
Environmental fate: Azadirachtin reportedly breaks down within 100
hours in water or light. It is relatively immobile in soil (Martineau 1994).
Wildlife: Azadirachtin is considered relatively non-toxic. Rat oral LD50 of
azadirachtin is >5000 mg/kg. However, cold-water extract of fresh neem
leaves caused mortality in guinea pigs and rabbits after 4 weeks of feeding
trials. This extract produced reversible infertility in rats and mice after 6
weeks (Extoxnet).
Azadirachtin is not likely to accumulate or cause long-term effects (Miller
and Uetz 1998). Fish toxicity is moderate and azadirachtin is not expected to
kill fish under normal use.
Natural enemies: Azadirachtin has little or no negative effect on adult
beneficials. It is reported to be relatively harmless to bees, spiders, ladybeetles,
parasitoid wasps, and adult butterflies. The product labels advise not to
apply it when honeybees are actively foraging (EPA). In a few trials, negative
effects have been noted on immature stages of beneficial species exposed
to neem (Qi et al. 2001, Banken and Stark 1997). However, neem products
are generally thought to be suitable for inclusion into integrated pest management
programs (Lowery and Isman 1994, Ruckin1992).
Other non-target organisms: Considered to be generally non-toxic.
Neem leaves added to the soil increased earthworm weight and survival
(Extoxnet). However, the effects of neem on many non-target organisms
have not been studied, and it seems likely that some may be affected.
Effects on human health: Studies of azadirachtin mutagenicity and
acute toxicity have shown that it likely does not pose a significant risk to
human health. However, some people have exhibited skin and mucous
membrane irritation from neem seed dust (Weinzierl and Henn 1991). Note
that most studies have been done on azadirachtin, and may not show the
effects of a whole neem product. Neem is used in some commercial human
hygiene products.
EFFICACY
Neem extracts have been shown to affect over 200 insect species including
some species of whiteflies, thrips, leafminers, caterpillars, aphids, scales,
beetles, true bugs and mealybugs (Thacker 2002, Copping 2001). Although
neem products are labeled for many species, efficacy against them varies
greatly.
Besides insects, other pests including mites (Miller and Uetz.1998, Smitley
and Davis 2000) and snails (Mostafa and Abdel-Megeed 1996) have been
reported susceptible to neem.

#14 Foster

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Posted 12 November 2007 - 11:16 PM

Sorry went a little crazy with the copy and paste, Just wanted to add more info. This was cut bits and pieces from this link http://www.nysaes.co...e/pdf/mfs08.pdf

It also has a few graphs/charts and a more info.

:rasta:

Foster



#15 Guest_cap_*

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Posted 07 July 2008 - 04:41 AM

u da man fost!

:bow:

just goin thru some of my old threads and this is one thats been overlooked again and again, but after the addition of the info provided by Foster (:bow:) its for sure 'chive Material? :teeth:
heh
and hey, *not to sound arrogant!* or step on ANY toes whatsoever (NEVER my plight...:eusa_booh)
i think this is a great thread and deservant of vaulting. heck, i post half the shit (like this) so i can have it in stone when i find info across the web. so that one day if needed, i can use it as a reference. for myself! that said, reckon that there are others who would find this very useful :) thats about as tactful a way of sayin it as i can muster :teeth: if im honest i think this thread shoulda been archived from the get go :p

cheers! :D :lol:

#16 LSDarkstar

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Posted 23 July 2008 - 09:29 AM

Neem is better than sliced bread, a fact !!

That said, this is great information and it's getting much more attention it seems these days. I see it all over the place , "Let there be songs to fill the air".

Also, thanks for the BUMP on this one. I've been surfing this site more and more as of late , and I just bookmarked this page as well. I feel like too much of a newb to be calling " Archive Material", but no better time to say it for the first time.....

Archive Material :eusa_clap

#17 Foster

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Posted 27 July 2008 - 06:19 PM

I keep coming back to this this thread myself:amazed:. Gotta love ya some neem. Trying to design a chamber with a fogging setup to decontam/debug plants as needed. Maybe even for preventive maintenance. Great thread cap!:headbang:

#18 bugs

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Posted 27 July 2008 - 06:58 PM

Neem is better than sliced bread, a fact !!

But ya can't make a sandwich with it.. Sorry, I'm baked.

I'll put in my vote for archiving, too. Between Cap and Foster, well, what else is there to know? Except, maybe, are there any ill effects if smoked after uptake in a plant? Or did I miss that?

Thanks guys.

#19 Guest_cap_*

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Posted 06 November 2008 - 12:31 AM

But ya can't make a sandwich with it.. Sorry, I'm baked.

I'll put in my vote for archiving, too. Between Cap and Foster, well, what else is there to know? Except, maybe, are there any ill effects if smoked after uptake in a plant? Or did I miss that?

Thanks guys.

if properly flushed, your plants should have ZERO residual nutrients/additives from the past in the buds themselves. my buddy uses water all the way through flower since his soil is strong enough, never adds a drop of nutes, and if he sometimes needs to add a drop of this or that in early flower or veg, and in that case he is sure to really leach the soil last cpl weeks before chop. typically, tho, the soil, which is extremely rich in organic/vegan ferts, as well as healthy microherd/microbes that can do as much as even pulling nitrogen from the atomoshpere to in turn feed the roots! thats a plus of having a healkthy microherd. resistance is aided immensely! his great soil and waterfeeding is the key, not whats added from time to time. he reuses it every time for a decade now! haha :) every time i try it, the stuff smokes incredible, with no aftertastes etc. itll burn to a white grey ash. no residuals in the buds.
so its all about how you grow that detrmines the smokability of the final product.
not the stuff added during the grow. for the most part. :)
on the other hand, i have friends that use heavy duty synthetic/chemmy ferts all the way through then waterfeed/flush last 3 or so weeks before cutting and similiarly their weed smokes beautifully.
again, its all in the technique :)

#20 jmtx

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Posted 06 November 2008 - 12:58 AM

neem oil, and i think its called thime oil were the only things to kill the fungis gnats that infested my tubs with out hurting the fruits




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