I had a question about Trich, since i've had a major outbreak in my first popcorn and rye jars. Hopefully my PF jars are Trich-free. I now have the trich outside and away, but I was wondering if I can reuse the jars (20 of them), and if so what the best way to clean them is.
I included a bit of info I found about trich.
Trichoderma harzianum has several sub-groups one of which, Th2, causes the vast majority of greenmould outbreaks in Ireland and the UK. Very rarely Trichoderma viride can cause greenmould by contaminating spawn. Even more rarely it may attack and kill mushrooms in later flushes. Low pH casing encourages Trichoderma viride.
Trichoderma can appear at the latter end of spawn run but is most likely to appear after the casing has been applied. It is normally only apparent as a white patch on the side of the bag, this rapidly changes to a green colour. When Trichoderma occurs in the middle of the bag its presence usually indicates that contamination has been present in the compost. If the growth is at the top of most bags, this indicates contamination at breaking or from the casing agent, if using chopped compost. The mould is very attractive to red pepper mites which multiply rapidly on it and eventually come to the surface to form clusters on the casing or on the mushrooms making them unpickable. The mites may prevent the green colour (sporulation) from occurring.
The original source of Trichoderma harzianum has not been identified although Trichoderma viride has been found in soil, casing, straw, and even water. Recent research indicates that some of these spores may survive peak heating, so some Trichoderma sp.may always be present in the compost. However, Th2 is rarely found in the compost ingredients. During outbreaks the source of contamination by Th2 have been found to be as follows:
The compost production personnel or machinery, the mechanical material handlers and pallets, airborne dust from contaminated compost, spores transferred from the outside to the inside of bags by 'levelling' personnel, dust from ventilation ducts and associated radiators, mice moving between bags, flies moving from crop to crop, mites dropping from clothing, 'levelling' personnel hands or tools.
Trichoderma spores are so small that they cannot be seen using a microscope and are very easily spread as indicated above.
If there is or has been a Trichoderma infection on the farm it is important to try and prevent further contamination. The following recommendations should therefore be carried out by growers who use the bag growing system.
Do not handle a delivery of bags unless wearing clothing which has just been washed or heated in a tumble drier and is thus free of Trichoderma spores and pepper mites.
Setting out the house:
Bags should not be allowed to heat up as temperatures of 27°C and above favour Trichoderma growth. They should be arranged in a mite and fly free house immediately after delivery.The smaller bags should be placed in the middle of the house with taller ones near the walls or doors as these areas tend to be cooler.
Do not 'surface spawn':
Trichoderma usually attacks spawn first and excess spawn favours growth.
Level the bags through the plastic, or use plastic disposable gloves which should be changed every 50 bags. Alternatively a tamping instrument can be used to level the bags. Again disinfect this instrument regularly. Bag tops should be left loosely folded over.
During the first week maintain the compost temperature at 21-22.5°C. Sterilise the thermometer in disinfectant if moving it from bag to bag.
During the second week compost temperatures should be raised to the optimum temperature of 25°C. Bags should be open enough to let the compost 'breathe' and exchange gases.
Casing must be treated with equal care:
It should be unloaded onto a clean area that has just been sterilised with 0.4% Environ or Prophyl. Casing should not be left near contaminated bags or where they have been set. The casing trolley and implements should also be sterilised.
Compost should not be mixed through the casing as there may be Trichoderma present that is not yet visible.
Do not spill compost outside the house or dump it nearby. Do not create compost dust when emptying. This will contaminate the ventilation system and water butt.
Use traps and bait to control vermin.
Attention to detail is important. Always clean door handles, don't store spawn in the mushroom fridge, don't leave compost sitting outside overnight. Pickers can contaminate the rest room and canteen areas with spores.
The watering rose head should be cleaned with fungicide prior to each watering and never be allowed to touch bags or the floor.
Disposal of bags:
Bags which are visibly infected with Trichoderma or mites should be sprayed on the surface with a sterilant such as Sudol or Jeyes fluid, then sealed and disposed of at a distant location. Care should be taken not to contaminate clothing or vehicles with spores or mites.
Careful application of these measures will have the benefit of reducing the incidence of most of the following pathogens:
The genus Trichoderma contains about 40 species. The taxonomy of this genus has been, and continues to be chaotic. One of the difficulties that exists in species level identification with this genus, is that many species are very similar microscopically and macroscopically in morphology. Trichoderma species are present in nearly all soils worldwide. Three species, T. viride, T. harzianum, and T. koningii, are usually found in indoor environments on building materials such as wallpaper, tiles, wallboard, and wood that is rich in cellulose.
Fungus of the month: Trichoderma
By: Eric Schile
Generally, Trichoderma species require relatively higher water activity than some other indoor molds such as Penicillium or Aspergillus. Like Stachybotrys, Trichoderma species produce their spores in a sticky matrix which means aerosolization of spores occurs less frequently than, for example, Penicillium. Trichoderma spores appear similar in shape and size to Penicillium and Aspergillus, but form in sticky clumps with a distinctive green pigment rather than in chains. Because of these distinctive morphological features, Trichoderma can be readily identified on tape lifts. It can also be readily identified on spore traps when clumps of spores are present. Trichoderma spores generally can disseminate through rain, insects, water splash, and wind when dried out.
Usually, Trichoderma growth on surfaces appears greenish in color and has a fuzzy appearance, similar to some Penicillim and Aspergillus species. Certain Trichoderma species can grow very quickly (i.e. 24 to 48 hours). Because of this rapid growth, Trichoderma can easily compete with other fungal colonies in culture and can overgrow the culture media before other fungi can really get started.
Some species produce distinct odors. Trichoderma viride produces a coconut odor in culture. This odor might not be unique to T. viride and other species of Trichoderma may produce a similar odor. The presence of such odor is a good indication that Trichoderma is present in a sample.
Many species of Trichoderma have been shown to be effective for controlling a wide range of plant pathogens. Their effectiveness is due to an ability to grow toward the hyphae of other fungi, coil about them, and degrade the cell walls of the target fungi. This process, called mycoparastitism, limits activity and growth of plant pathogenic fungi. The antifungal properties of this fungus have been known since the 1930s and have recently been utilized for commercial purposes. One successful application has been for Botrytis rot control on apple and strawberry crops.
From Mycotopia Glossary : http://mycotopia.net...sary&page=3&c=3
The green mold, trichoderma. It starts brilliant white and turns green quickly, usually within 2 days.if you get it there is no good fix, best just to toss it outdoors,
where sometimes it can recover. the green is mold spores, spreading everywhere.
Trichoderma is a genus of filamentous deuteromycetes. A review of the biology of the genus has been provided by Samuels (1996). Species of Trichoderma can generally be found as dominant components of the microflora in all soils including forest humus layer, agricultural and orchard soils (Roiger et al. 1991). Trichoderma harzianum is rarely reported to grow on living plants and is not associated with plant disease. However, one aggressive strain has been found that causes a significant disease of the commercial mushroom (Seaby 1998). Trichoderma harzianum has no known sexual stage and is believed to be mitotic and clonal. Colonies grow rapidly on malt agar, turning yellowish-green to dark green due to the formation of conidia.
the contam test-
[assumes birthed cakes or casings, etc.]
Place a cake under running water and rub the discolored spots with your finger. If it smears it's mold. If is does not smear or feel slimey it is discolored/bruised mycelium.
Cleaning up after Trich:
What is the nature of trich:
[COLOR=Blue]Other Helpful Trich Links: