Posted 28 November 2007 - 01:10 PM
Posted 28 November 2007 - 01:27 PM
eventually i'm sure you could accomplish the same thing that inbreeding does to humans and end up with disastrous effects, but i dont see it being worth the time.
i have received prints in trades from certain members here that were 'experiments' with cloned mutants. such as a malaysian that would more than occaisonally throw off upside down fruits and caps that would open as pins and still mature out into some weird shapes. the spores of a product like this would carry some of these traits along (as did the print i first received) and if you only printed mutants you would end up with some serious issues. i always tell people i give these prints where it came from, and i never print the mutants for trades as i worry about the undesirable but fun to watch mutant strain could flood the market. especially for a strain thats not as common as others around here.
please be ethical and make sure people know what your trading them is if you have prints from something like this.
Posted 01 April 2008 - 05:51 PM
The more varied a species, the more likely it is able to survive change in it's environment, so they tend to make their gametes (e.g. sperm, egg) different.
But I'm really not too sure about fungi genetics...
Posted 01 April 2008 - 06:03 PM
With some care the breeder can avoid the hidden dangers of unconscious selection. Definite goals are vital to progress in breeding Psilocybe mushrooms. What qualities are desired in a strain that it does not already exhibit? What characteristics does a strain exhibit that are unfavorable and should be bred out?
Answers to these questions suggest goals for breeding. In addition to a basic knowledge of mushroom botany, propagation, and genetics, the successful breeder also becomes aware of the most minute differences and similarities in phenotype. A sensitive rapport is established between breeder and mushrooms and at the same time strict guidelines are followed. Selection is the first and most important step in the breeding of any mushroom.
One must get clearly in mind the kind of mushroom he wants, then breed and select to that end, always choosing through a series of generations the mushrooms which are approaching nearest the ideal, and rejecting all others.
Proper selection of prospective parents is only possible if the breeder is familiar with the variable characteristics of Psilocybe mushrooms that may be genetically controlled, has a way to accurately measure these variations, and has established goals for improving these characteristics by selective breeding. By selecting against unfavorable traits while selecting for favorable ones, the unconscious breeding of poor strains is avoided.
Essential Points of Mushroom Breeding
1.The genotypes of mushrooms are controlled by genes which are passed on unchanged from generation to generation.
2.Genes occur in pairs, one from each parent spore.
3.When the members of a gene pair differ in their effect upon phenotype, the mushroom is termed hybrid or heterozygous.
4.When the members of a pair of genes are equal in their effect upon phenotype, then they are termed truebreeding or homozygous.
5.Pairs of genes controlling different phenotypic traits are (usually) inherited independently.
6.Dominance relations and gene interaction can alter the phenotypic ratios of the F1, F2, and subsequent generations.
Genotype and Phenotype Ratios
Phenotype and genotype ratios are probabilistic. If recessive genes are desired for three traits it is not effective to raise only 64 offspring and count on getting one homozygous recessive individual. To increase the probability of success it is better to raise hundreds of offspring, choosing only the best homozygous recessive individuals as future parents. All laws of inheritance are based on chance and offspring may not approach predicted ratios until many more have been phenotypically characterized and grouped than the theoretical minimums.
The genotype of each individual is expressed by a mosaic of thousands of subtle overlapping traits. It is the sum total of these traits that determines the general pheno- type of an individual. It is often difficult to determine if the characteristic being selected is one trait or the blending of several traits and whether these traits are controlled by one or several pairs of genes. It often makes little difference that a breeder does not have mushrooms that are proven to breed true. Breeding goals can still be established. The selfing of F1 hybrids will often give rise to the variation needed in the F2 generation for selecting parents for subsequent generations, even if the characteristics of the original parents of the F1 hybrid are not known. It is in the following generations that fixed characteristics appear and the breeding of pure strains can begin. By selecting and crossing individuals that most nearly approach the ideal described by the breeding goals, the variety can be continuously improved even if the exact patterns of inheritance are never determined. Complementary traits are eventually combined into one line whose seeds reproduce the favorable parental traits. Inbreeding strains also allows weak recessive traits to express themselves and these abnormalities must be diligently removed from the breeding population. After five or six generations, strains become amazingly uniform. Vigor is occasionally restored by crossing with other lines or by backcrossing.
Parental mushrooms are selected which most nearly approach the ideal. If a desirable trait is not expressed by the parent, it is much less likely to appear in the offspring. It is imperative that desirable characteristics be hereditary and not primarily the result of environment and cultivation. Acquired traits are not hereditary and cannot be made hereditary. Breeding for as few traits as possible at one time greatly increases the chance of success. In addition to the specific traits chosen as the aims of breeding, parents are selected which possess other generally desirable traits such as vigor and size. Determinations of dominance and recessiveness can only be made by observing the outcome of many crosses, although wild traits often tend to be dominant. This is one of the keys to adaptive survival. However, all the possible combinations will appear in the F2 generation if it is large enough, regardless of dominance.
Now, after further simplifying this wonderful system of inheritance, there are additional exceptions to the rules which must be explored. In some cases, a pair of genes may control a trait but a second or third pair of genes is needed to express this trait. This is known as gene interaction. No particular genetic attribute in which we may be interested is totally isolated from other genes and the effects of environment. Genes are occasionally transferred in groups instead of assorting independently. This is known as gene linkage, These genes are spaced along the same chromosome and may or may not control
the same trait. The result of linkage might be that one trait cannot be inherited without another. At times, traits may be associated with the sex chromosomes and they may be limited to expression in only one sex (sex linkage). Crossing over also interferes with the analysis of crosses. Crossing over is the exchanging of entire pieces of genetic material between two chromosomes. This can result in two genes that are normally linked appearing on separate chromosomes where they will be independently inherited. All of these processes can cause crosses to deviate from the expected Mendelian outcome.
Chance is a major factor in breeding mushrooms, and the more crosses a breeder attempts the higher are the chances of success.
Variate, isolate, intermate, evaluate, multiplicate, and disseminate are the key words in mushroom improvement. A mushroom breeder begins by producing or collecting various prospective parents from which the most desirable ones are selected and isolated. Intermating of the select parents results in offspring which must be evaluated for favorable characteristics. If evaluation indicates that the offspring are not improved, then the process is repeated. Improved offspring are multiplied and disseminated. Further evaluation in the field is necessary to check for uniformity and to choose parents for further intermating. This cyclic approach provides a balanced system of mushroom improvement.
The basic nature of mushrooms make them challenging to breed. Developing a knowledge and feel for the mushroom is more important than memorizing Mendelian ratios. The words of the great Luther Burbank say it well, "Heredity is indelibly fixed by repetition."
List of Favorable Traits of Mushrooms in Which Variation Occurs
1. General Traits
a) Size and Yield
e) Disease and Pest Resistance
g) Mycelium Production
h) Pin Set
2. Specific Traits
d) Psilocybin/Psilocin Level
e) Taste and Aroma
f) Drying Rate
g) Ease of Harvest
h) Spore Characteristics
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Posted 01 April 2008 - 07:14 PM
a malaysian that would more than occaisonally throw off upside down fruits and caps that would open as pins and still mature out into some weird shapes. the spores of a product like this would carry some of these traits along (as did the print i first received) and if you only printed mutants you would end up with some serious issues.
that sounds like a viral infection to me.
spores can carry a virus
as they live inside the cell itself.
Posted 08 April 2008 - 09:04 PM
I adapted it from marijuana botany
Although the way plants exist is different from mushrooms
the basic genetic laws are the same for all life.
Will we be able to have a journal with the new skin?
Posted 08 April 2008 - 10:08 PM
I'm getting excited..will the features be the same?