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A Short Note on the Home Cultivation of Panaeolus subbalteatus


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#1 mjshroomer

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 01:53 PM

Well fellow members, spring is upon us soon and the appearance of Panaeolus subbalteatus is coming.

I have picked them in gardens in mulch beds form the top soils in Seattle in December, January and February, while their normal west coast and PNW flutings are usually in rotted hay from late February through May until it is too hot. And then they also0 appear sometimes in manre on this side of the coast in August, September and October until it is too cold.

Below is an article of mine from Issue 5 of Psychedelic Illuminations

A SHORT NOTE ON THE HOME CULTIVATION
OF
PANAEOLUS SUBBALTEATUS
By
John W. Allen


Panaeolus subbalteatus, a coprophilous [dung-inhabiting] species, also grows well in other habitats including: lawns, haystacks, compost heaps, at racetracks and at riding stables in stable shavings of woodchips, hay and manure. It has a cosmopolitan distribution and is a warm weather mushroom.

During the early 1900's, this species was often referred to as the "weed Panaeolus." It was a common occurrence in beds of the commercially grown grocery store mushroom Agaricus campestris. Because of its inebriating properties the mushroom cultivators had to weed it out from the edible mushrooms, hence the term "weed Panaeolus."

This species may be cultivated in vitro at home by using the simplest of techniques and methods described in this paper. This can be accomplished by the novice mushroom enthusiast without the use of any kind of expensive laboratory equipment. However, I do recommend that the potential grower obtain a copy of The Mushroom Cultivator by Paul Stamets and Jeff Chilton before attempting to grow mushrooms at home. A second book which is out of print, but sometimes may be purchased at a used book store, is by the late Dr. Steven H. Pollock titled "Magic Mushroom Cultivation." This out of print book describes methods for growing Panaeolus subbalteatus. Two other mushroom growing manuals written for psychedelic enthusiasts are Bob Harris' "Growing Wild Mushrooms" and Oss and Oeric's fine guide "The Psilocybin Growers Guide." These growing manuals will aid the intrepid experimenter in producing a fine crop of the sacred fungi. I will now describe two methods for growing mycelia for the propagation of Panaeolus subbalteatus and two growing methods for producing abundant crops of fruiting bodies. One method for producing the mycelium is more difficult than the other; however, do not be discouraged by these differences in approaches to cultivation.

The first method requires producing mycelia from a spore print. There are several companies who have available, spore prints for Panaeolus subbalteatus. Advertisements for spore prints may be found in such publications as High Times Magazine and the English publication Home Grown. I would like to recommend that the beginners obtain their spores from a Seattle based company known as "Shroom King" which has a monthly advertisement in High Times magazine. Spore prints are usually available for $5 to $10 per print. A second method for obtaining a spore print is from fresh mushrooms as they occur in their own natural habitat.

Panaeolus subbalteatus grows abundantly during the early spring and early fall months, after heavy rainfalls, in the Pacific Northwest; especially in Oregon State. They are also common in Northern California and Washington. The Willamette valley of Oregon is hay country and huge bales of hay are usually visible to the human eye while driving down local highways and country roads throughout this region of Oregon. The bales are usually stacked in tiers of four large bales and rows of these bales extend up to 200 yards in length. From early February through May and from late August through September, one may find large fruitings of Panaeolus subbalteatus growing abundantly along Highway 99 West and Highway 99 East in Oregon between Eugene and Corvallis. This area is an excellent location for the collecting spores and fresh specimens. Haystacks are visible along both of these highways.

A spore print may be obtained by two different methods of extraction. First you must make a spore print by cutting the stem of the mushroom from off of the cap and placing it so the gill-plates are face down on a clean sheet of white paper. Then place a glass jar over the mushroom cap so that the spores will settle directly beneath the mushroom cap. After twenty minutes, remove the jar and lift the cap from off of the paper. Mushrooms belonging to the genus Panaeolus and Copelandia will produce a spore print that will be jet black.

Another method for obtaining spores is to use a swab stick and a culture tube. With the cotton end of the swab stick, gently rub the cotton end along the gill-plates of the mushroom cap. The spores will adhere to the cotton. Next place the cotton end of the stick into a slanted culture tube. This is a very sterile method for collecting spores from their natural habitat.

Once you have obtained a spore print you need a good supply of petri plates, an inoculating loop, and a good supply of ready made agar. These items may be obtained from a local hobby shop or any chemical supply company. Agar is the primary medium for growing the mycelium. Methods for the manufacture of agar are provided in any of the above mushroom growing manuals.

Be sure to always wear surgical or rubber gloves when working with your agar and spore transfers. And be sure that your growing environment is clean and sterile. You can sterilize your inoculating loop with a flame from a torch or cigarette lighter. Once they have been sterilized, rub the sterilized tip of the inoculating loop into your spore sample and then transfer the spores into the agar. The second method is to take the spores from a swab stick stored in a culture tube and transfer the swab stick into a second slanted culture tube containing pre-made agar.

Eventually the spores will mate and grow into a fine fluffy and cottony patch of pure white fuzzy mycelium. After the mycelium has spread throughout the agar, patches of the mycelium can be transferred into a growing medium made of rotted hay or pasteurized wheat straw. Methods for pasteurizing wheat straw can be found in Stamets and Chilton's The Mushroom Cultivator.

The second method for the extraction of mycelium is to use the cap of a freshly picked mushroom not more than 20 hours old. You can produce a culture from the caps of a fresh mushroom, which is composed of pure mycelium. This method will provide the prospective grower with a bypass system for producing the mycelium without the use of agar.

First wipe clean the cap of the mushroom using a cotton swab that has been sterilized in Lysol. Let the Lysol evaporate. Next, using an exacto-blade that has been sterilized with an open flame then cut the skin of the mushroom cap open and peel back the outer skin to expose the inner tissue of the mushroom. Cut away a triangular section from out of the top center of the mushroom cap. Once this has been accomplished, you can proceed to inoculate the section of mushroom into the center of a petri plate with agar. You may also inoculate sections of the exposed mushroom tissue into cultivated boxes of pasteurized wheat straw or into bales of rotted hay. For maximum growth it would be best to use pasteurized wheat straw and only the Panaeolus subbalteatus mushrooms will appear.

For the outdoor propagation of Panaeolus subbalteatus you must bring home to your garden, bales of rotted hay in which fresh specimens of Panaeolus subbalteatus are already growing. You can place your bales of hay side by side in your back yard or you may wish to shred and then scatter the shredded hay about over a large area in your back yard. When your mushrooms are fruiting, you may wish to place several new bales in and around where the old bales are. This will allow the spores from the old bales to spread into the new ones. For a maximum growth, repeat this process every summer. When the early spring and fall rains come, your garden will have produced a good abundant crop of mushrooms.

Indoors production of either Panaeolus subbalteatus or other related species such asCopelandia cyanescens can be accomplished in a similar manner by using small starter trays instead of outdoor garden bed boxes. Mycelium can also be obtained from the rotted bales of hay. Using rubber gloves you can collect fresh mycelium from haystacks where your mushrooms are growing and then infused the mycelium into mason jars of sterilized rye grain. This is a working method for producing spawn. Fresh material collected from hay or manure may also be mixed with pasteurized wheat straw and these two mixtures, mycelium and wheat straw provide a perfect symbiotic relationship for producing your mushrooms.

When indoors, humidity should register at least 90 degrees with a temperature of at least 80 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. A spawn run can be as long as 7 to 12 days when grown in vitro. Types of casing to be used are optional, but peat moss mixed with dolomite works quite effectively. Spread the peat moss in layers over the top of the wheat straw; but not more than an inch to an inch and a half thick.
Your mushrooms can be incubated in the dark. When they start to appear, primordial formations will began to form and grow when the humidity hits 95 degrees plus % and the air temperature reaches 75 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Grow lights are a necessity because they seem to emit the right amount of light that is necessary for the spawning to fruit.

When cropping time approaches, the humidity should average somewhere between 85 to 92%, and the room temperature should not exceed more than from 75 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the best air temperature for the successful cultivation of Panaeolus subbalteatus.
The mushrooms should be harvested when the caps are expanded to a plane position. Pollock mentioned that he had successfully cultivated both Panaeolus subbalteatus and Copelandia cyanescens by using pasteurized wheat straw as a growing medium.

Dosage for Panaeolus subbalteatus is one to two fresh ounces wet weight and from two to five grams dried for an ecstatic and visual experience.

I wish the reader much good luck and a most happy shroom crop.


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#2 Nzo

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 01:57 PM

wow interesting, i didnt know these were
cultivatable..
although pan subb spores can be a bitch to find..i only seen em once
at the marketplace.

#3 Lazlo

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 02:06 PM

From TCO.

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#4 mjshroomer

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 02:58 PM

wow interesting, i didnt know these were
cultivatable..
although pan subb spores can be a bitch to find..i only seen em once
at the marketplace.



Here are a couple of images of mass production of Panaeolus subbalteatus from Tiel, Nederlands.

mjshroomer

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#5 dial8

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 03:23 PM

Damn thats inspirational. :)

#6 Nzo

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 06:10 PM

thats so far out!!

never ever ate or grew these bad boys. hopefully in the future.
thanks for all the info..im going to bookmark page :rasta:

its crazy how their appearance changes when cultivated

#7 Hella_Dood

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 10:38 PM

I've never found them so I can't speak from any experience but the cultivated ones do look way diff. from all the pics I've seen of wild specimens. Do they have a good zoom? I've heard mention of "aphrodisiac" qualities from these while most psilly's usually kind of have the, uh......oposite effect on me. :horse:
Isn't their potency kinda low?

#8 the_chosen_one

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Posted 30 December 2007 - 11:28 PM

I've never found them so I can't speak from any experience but the cultivated ones do look way diff. from all the pics I've seen of wild specimens. Do they have a good zoom? I've heard mention of "aphrodisiac" qualities from these while most psilly's usually kind of have the, uh......oposite effect on me. :horse:
Isn't their potency kinda low?


MJ has the dosage perfect. 2-5 dry grams provides an excellent experience. the trip is very clean and lacks most of the discomforts associated with other actives. i have dosed about 10 grams with less than half the stomach upset of 4 grams of cubensis, and even less histamine response. it is quite easy to handle social situations (concerts, stores, movies etc). it's a very elative trip as well. very fun for a night on the town. :)

"aphrodisiac" qualities heh, yeah. you feel like you can do anything;)

#9 greenie

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 12:35 AM

so then the consensus would be that (roughly speaking) 1/8th oz of cubensis = 1/8th oz subalteatus (roughly)??

#10 the_chosen_one

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 01:09 AM

4-5 grams of pan sub is about equal to 3-4 grams cubensis without the body load for me. many could interperet this as less potent. i see them as just being different.. very enjoyable.

#11 mjshroomer

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 01:07 PM

so then the consensus would be that (roughly speaking) 1/8th oz of cubensis = 1/8th oz subalteatus (roughly)??


I have made a tea of wild ones without thinking of weight and I had one of the most, and fastest cartoony highs I ever had. It must of been at least one and a half fresh ounce or more. was hard to tell.

The girl I did it with was really strange. I met her in the park and ask her if she want to shroom with me and of course she said yes.

What was really strange about her was that she had lived on the beach with a group of hippies for about two months and her hair and body reeked of firewood form hanging around the camp fire a lot. It actually choked me on and off because I wanted the smell to go away but it was so permeated into her skin it would have taken a year of fie baths a day to remove it.

But the high began in about ten minutes and what was funny was that I tried to close my eyes and the visuals were like Patrick Woodruff's colored psychedelic art, coming at me at the speed of light and before i knew it I would feel these molecules of spray hitting my eyes and they felt like they were going ping! ping! and the force of those minuscule droplets bombarding my eyelids caused me to open my eyes immediately and I would see the same colored patterns shooting across and around our bed space were we were going at it.

IT was a good high.

Wild most enjjoy the Pan subbs, dr. Andrew Weil in the jornal of Altered States of Consciousness and later the journal of Psychedelic drugs and then re-edited into his anthology of drug tales, the Marriage of the Sun and the Moon, he told of having a not too pleasant experience on Panaeolus subbalteatus.

According to Weil, “During the spring and summer months, when no Liberty Caps are available, Oregonians can use another variety of psilocybin mushroom in the genus Panaeolus. It is easily collected in quantities on piles of rotting hay stacked in fields in the Willamette Valley, where most of the population of the state lives. This mushroom, Panaeolus subbalteatus, though small, is twice as fleshy as the Liberty Cap. Yet the dose is the same, about twenty to forty mushrooms. That is to say, the Panaeolus is less potent. Moreover the quality of the effect is not as good. Particularly when fresh, it tends to produce symptoms of mild toxicity. Some people experience nausea from it. I get an uncomfortable restlessness for an hour after eating it. This toxicity is reduced on drying, but not eliminated. Panaeolus subbalteatus is less effective at triggering visual spectacles. Nonetheless, it is a popular mushroom during the warm months.”

[FONT="]From Dr. Andrew Weil’s book, “Marriage of the Sun and the Moon.” 1980. Boston. Houghton-Mifflin Co.

I should mention that while Weil was the only person who wrote of having an uncomfortable exp0erience on this species, I can find o no other report in the scientific literature verifying his report of a bad experience.
[/FONT]
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#12 bugs

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 07:01 PM

Timely info, mjshroomer. I have a couple of 'suspected' pan subb prints that I'll be starting soon on agar. Some will be used for an outdoor bed, others indoors.

It sounds like they will fruit under pretty much the same environment as pan cyans. True? If so I'll start some of those critters at the same time and make good use of my new "pan tubb." Do they like some horsey poo mixed into the straw?

#13 the_chosen_one

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 09:23 PM

my indoor grow in the pic Laz posted was done using standard pan and cubie teks. same temps.. everything. the only thing different was the entire casing was resting on a wicking bed of perlite. the myc loved it and dug deep into it. it also took a few soakings of the upper layer to induce fruiting.

outdoors horse poo and straw work great and seem to produce stouter fruits than those found in lawns.

#14 bugs

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Posted 31 December 2007 - 09:54 PM

Much thanks, TCo. Good ifo. Chet has access to plenty of horse poo anb hay. I'll do several isolations and mix them for the spawm (gotr 3-holer Petris). Maybe we'll start a pile now so it will be starting to mellow int he spring.

The substrate dousnt get too wet, sitting on the perlite?

#15 the_chosen_one

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Posted 01 January 2008 - 01:15 AM

Much thanks, TCo. Good ifo. Chet has access to plenty of horse poo anb hay. I'll do several isolations and mix them for the spawm (gotr 3-holer Petris). Maybe we'll start a pile now so it will be starting to mellow int he spring.

The substrate dousnt get too wet, sitting on the perlite?


it was a pretty airy substrate. basically it's a layer of verm (about 1/2"-5/8") on the bottom. then a layer of spawn.. i believe that grow was crumbled pf cake made with rye or millet instead of brf.. anyways a slightly thicker layer of 50/50 (about 3/4"-1") was applied on top.
all laid on a bed of perlite about three inches deep. water level was kept around maybe a half inch at the most.

i do have a knack at wicking though. it can be quite challenging for some people. wicking a casing can even be more difficult than PF cakes. you really have to watch your water levels and FAE.

it should be able to be done without the wicking method though. the controlled soakings imitate the spring rains pretty well. and i doubt the pics that MJ shared were wicked. wow! what a nice isolate! :heart:

it's an odd colonizer even for a pan. it very quickly covers everything with a very thin layer of myc.. hehe almost looks like cobweb. then it fills in. pins form within a few days.

you'll have fun with it both indoors and out :)

#16 bugs

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Posted 01 January 2008 - 10:25 AM

I just looked at last nite's post. I think I was cooked:horse:

No poo in that sub, huh? I think I'll be a bit more traditional. My attempts at wicking cubies on pf cakes have had less than stellar results.

MJ's pics sure do look nice. It must be quite an experience to visit those big mushroom farms.

The comments about Dr. Weil have me wondering. He has a pretty large 'mainstream' following. Do most of them know that he's an experienced and knowledgeable psychonaut? I kind of hope so; that might help undermine the demonization of, for lack of a better term, psychedelics.

#17 the_chosen_one

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Posted 01 January 2008 - 11:17 AM

yes, it was some left over spawn intended for outdoor beds. Bob Harris once told me that it was an easy cultivator. thus an obsession was born. wow! that was a long time ago.

#18 Hippie3

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Posted 01 January 2008 - 11:46 AM

:cool:

#19 little white rabbit

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Posted 01 January 2008 - 01:44 PM

i have 2 casings in my FC with some other pans. pins should come during the next 2 days




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