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You Have An Endocannabinoid System- Cannabis Revelations

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#1 hyphaenation


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Posted 05 May 2008 - 09:37 PM

There has been some amazing information coming in the past number of years regarding our body's endocannabinoid system ECS.

The endogenous cannabinoid system is an ubiquitous lipid signalling system that appeared early in evolution and which has important regulatory functions throughout the body in all vertebrates. The main endocannabinoids (endogenous cannabis-like substances) are small molecules derived from arachidonic acid, anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. They bind to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors, of which the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is densely distributed in areas of the brain related to motor control, cognition, emotional responses, motivated behaviour and homeostasis. Outside the brain, the endocannabinoid system is one of the crucial modulators of the autonomic nervous system, the immune system and microcirculation. Endocannabinoids are released upon demand from lipid precursors in a receptor-dependent manner and serve as retrograde signalling messengers in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, as well as modulators of postsynaptic transmission, interacting with other neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Endocannabinoids are transported into cells by a specific uptake system and degraded by two well-characterized enzymes, the fatty acid amide hydrolase and the monoacylglycerol lipase. Recent pharmacological advances have led to the synthesis of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, anandamide uptake blockers and potent, selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. These new tools have enabled the study of the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids and have opened up new strategies in the treatment of pain, obesity, neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, emotional disturbances such as anxiety and other psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. Recent advances have specifically linked the endogenous cannabinoid system to alcoholism, and cannabinoid receptor antagonism now emerges as a promising therapeutic alternative for alcohol dependence and relapse.

From: http://alcalc.oxford...ent/full/40/1/2

General Wiki explanations

This system is incredibly important to health. I wanted to share a series of sites, videos and lectures to bring this science to the table. Its peer reviewed and done by qualified researchers.

First I would recommend this talk by Dr. Bob Melamede PhD as an overview.

[Direct Link]

Next this is an excellent Cannabinoid research site.
It has an excellent animation section of the ECS and its impacts.

Then back to Dr. Bob if it intrests you for more indepth lectures about Cannabinoids.

[Direct Link]

part 1

[Direct Link]

part 2

Then there is a CNN special that is worth viewing RE: Alzhiemers & Cannabis

I hope that you find this emerging Cannabis, Cannabinoid science interesting. I'd like to see what people that review this information think. Here's a few other assorted links for those of you that make take an intrest in your endocannabinoid system and cannabinoids in general...

ERG research group

Raphael Mechoulam PhD

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#2 shroom_seeker


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Posted 05 May 2008 - 10:01 PM

great links thank you for sharing :bow:

#3 hyphaenation


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Posted 05 May 2008 - 10:22 PM

A few more to check out ...

Cannabinoid wiki

Cannabinoid Recptor


Science News
Cannabinoids May Inhibit Cancer Cell Invasion

ScienceDaily (Dec. 27, 2007) — Cannabinoids may suppress tumor invasion in highly invasive cancers, according to a study published online December 25 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Cannabinoids, the active components in marijuana, are used to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as pain, weight loss, and vomiting, but there is increasing evidence that they may also inhibit tumor cell growth. However, the cellular mechanisms behind this are unknown.

Robert Ramer, Ph.D., and Burkhard Hinz, Ph.D., of the University of Rostock in Germany investigated whether and by what mechanism cannabinoids inhibit tumor cell invasion.

Cannabinoids did suppress tumor cell invasion and stimulated the expression of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of a group of enzymes that are involved in tumor cell invasion.

“To our knowledge, this is the first report of TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive effects of cannabinoids. This signaling pathway may play an important role in the antimetastatic action of cannabinoids, whose potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of highly invasive cancers should be addressed in clinical trials,” the authors write.

The medicinal use of marijuana goes back into history as far as several thousand years, by some accounts. But it was in the 1800s that its potential as an analgesic began to be studied,2 leading eventually to the discovery of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana. The discovery of this cannabinoid ignited a search to better understand how THC affects the nervous system, and in 1990 a cannabinoid receptor, CB1, was identified in the brain.2

The discovery of the CB1 receptor spurred the discovery of endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide (named after the Sanskrit word for bliss);2 others quickly followed, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). These chemicals — the brain's equivalent of THC — are now collectively known as endocannabinoids.

Andrea Hohmann and colleagues1 recently showed the involvement of endocannabinoids in stress-induced analgesia. The authors created an experimental model using rats, to which they applied painful stimuli involving a non-opioid pathway. After the authors gave the animals rimonabant, a compound that blocks CB1 receptors, they observed that the rats no longer exhibited an antinociceptive effect; that is, the animals felt more pain. Moreover, when the rats were made tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids (by treating the animals chronically with a compound that competes with cannabinoids), the rats began to feel pain again.

To assess whether endocannabinoids were being released by the brain as a response to pain, the investigators measured levels of anandamide and 2-AG. In the midbrain, 2-AG concentrations increased 2 minutes after a painful stimulus. This increase was followed at 7– 15 minutes by the appearance of anandamide. Anandamide and 2-AG therefore have an apparent role in stress-induced relief of pain.

Finally, Hohmann's group1 created an enzyme-inhibitor that degrades 2-AG. When it was injected into the brains of the study rats, antinociception was enhanced.

Many would argue that legalizing medicinal marijuana would negate the necessity of this research. However, given the ongoing controversy around this issue, the work of Hohmann and colleagues is an important step in developing drugs that not only exploit endogenous cannabinoid pathways to treat severe pain but are free of the social stigma that accompanies illegal drugs.

How Do Cannabinoids Make Us Feel That Way?

Marijuana and its main psychoactive component, THC, exert a plethora of behavioral and autonomic effects on humans and animals. Some of these effects are the cause of the widespread illicit use of marijuana, while others might be involved in the potential therapeutic use of this drug for the treatment of several neuronal disorders. The great majority of these effects of THC are mediated by cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. The exact anatomical and neuronal substrates of each action, however, were previously unknown. Using an advanced genetic approach, Krisztina Monory and colleagues at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz discovered that specific neuronal subpopulations mediate the distinct effects of THC. Their work is published online this week in the open-access journal PLoS Biology.

In their study, the researchers generated mutant mice lacking CB1 expression in defined neuronal subpopulations but not in others. These mice were treated with THC, and typical effects of the drug on motor behavior, pain, and thermal sensation were scored. Their discovery of the neural substrates underlying specific effects of THC could lead to a refined interpretation of the pharmacological actions of cannabinoids. Moreover, these data might provide the rationale for the development of drugs capable of selectively activating CB1 in specific neuronal subpopulations, thereby better exploiting cannabinoids' potential therapeutic properties.

Citation: Monory K, Blaudzun H, Massa F, Kaiser N, Lemberger T, et al (2007) Genetic dissection of behavioural and autonomic effects of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice. PLoS Biol 5(10): e269. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050269

Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis


Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids

Role of Endogenous Cannabinoids in Synaptic Signaling

Research of cannabinoid actions was boosted in the 1990s by remarkable discoveries including identification of endogenous compounds with cannabimimetic activity (endocannabinoids) and the cloning of their molecular targets, the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Although the existence of an endogenous cannabinoid signaling system has been established for a decade, its physiological roles have just begun to unfold. In addition, the behavioral effects of exogenous cannabinoids such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active compound of hashish and marijuana, await explanation at the cellular and network levels. Recent physiological, pharmacological, and high-resolution anatomical studies provided evidence that the major physiological effect of cannabinoids is the regulation of neurotransmitter release via activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors located on distinct types of axon terminals throughout the brain. Subsequent discoveries shed light on the functional consequences of this localization by demonstrating the involvement of endocannabinoids in retrograde signaling at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. In this review, we aim to synthesize recent progress in our understanding of the physiological roles of endocannabinoids in the brain. First, the synthetic pathways of endocannabinoids are discussed, along with the putative mechanisms of their release, uptake, and degradation. The fine-grain anatomical distribution of the neuronal cannabinoid receptor CB1 is described in most brain areas, emphasizing its general presynaptic localization and role in controlling neurotransmitter release. Finally, the possible functions of endocannabinoids as retrograde synaptic signal molecules are discussed in relation to synaptic plasticity and network activity patterns.

Don't be paranoid , Be Cannabinoid !
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#4 warriorsoul


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 10:42 AM

Thats alot of good info!

#5 Walls Have Teeth

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Posted 15 May 2008 - 02:02 PM

thats pretty in depth and interesting

#6 hyphaenation


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 03:13 PM

For Cannabis users this knowledge can help them move to the next level of understanding and safer use. Cannabis is not harmless , but one can mitigate many of the harms it can cause with a small bit of self education and research.

Just Say Know
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#7 warriorsoul


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 04:09 PM

I like your style hyph:bow:

#8 Beast


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 04:23 PM

For Cannabis users this knowledge can help them move to the next level of understanding and safer use. Cannabis is not harmless , but one can mitigate many of the harms it can cause with a small bit of self education and research.

Just Say Know


#9 hyphaenation


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 05:24 PM

I had a thought...

Just because Cannabis is prohibited doesn't mean we should use it irresponsibly

I have this theory that wherever Cannabis prohibition is harshly enforced you see more people using it. They use it as a form of rebellion against its banning. They smoke each joint like it could be their last.

One only has to look at Holland to see the opposite of this effect. Legal coffeeshop sales. Less teenage Cannabis use than America. Less overall use in society. At the same time the Dutch government brought in $630 million in Cannabis tax dollars. Over 10 years thats a lot of money to be dumped back into social programs.

End prohibition and less people consume ...

Just an opinion

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#10 bugs


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 06:25 PM

Oh, come on! Da gummint sez marihuana got no medical value. Dey even buy reaserch dat say it bad. So wat dese researchers doin goin aganst ta gummint! Dum intelekshuls, dey shud be shot! We all gotta beleve da gummint an do wat is sez. It ar pattriotic duty or we are de emeny.
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#11 hyphaenation


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 06:43 PM

I have to digest this information slowly, remebering to chew. Or else I get brain integestion.

Its a steep learning curve. The videos and animations help.
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#12 bugs


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 07:13 PM

I sure see what you mean. But it's fascinating stuff. Really, man, thanks for the links and quotes.

It's encouraging that real, honest research is being done as opposed to some of the government- and prohibitionist-sponsored 'studies' that are designed to produce frightening conclusions using poor experimental design and questionable statistical analysis.
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#13 hyphaenation


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Posted 15 May 2008 - 07:53 PM

Here's another gooder that I just came across.

THC in marijuana may block the spread of forms of cancer causing herpes viruses

The compound in marijuana that produces a high, delta-9 tetrahydrocannbinol or THC, may block the spread of several forms of cancer causing herpes viruses, University of South Florida College of Medicine scientists report.

The findings, published Sept. 15 in the online journal BMC Medicine, could lead to the creation of antiviral drugs based on nonpsychoactive derivatives of THC.

The gamma herpes viruses include Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpes virus, which is associated with an increased risk of cancer that is particularly prevalent in AIDS sufferers. Another is Epstein-Barr virus, which predisposes infected individuals to cancers such as Burkitt's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.

Once a person is infected, these viruses can remain dormant for long periods within white blood cells before they burst out and begin replicating. This reactivation of the virus boosts the number of cells infected thereby increasing the chances that the cells will become cancerous.

The USF team, led by virologist Peter Medveczky, MD, found that this sudden reactivation was prevented if infected cells were grown in the presence of THC. While cells infected with a mouse gamma herpes virus normally died when the virus was reactivated, these same cells survived when cultured in the laboratory along with the cannabinoid compound - further evidence that THC prevents viral reactivation.

Furthermore, the researchers showed that THC acts specifically on gamma herpes viruses. The chemical had no effect on another related virus, herpes simplex-1, which causes cold sores and genital herpes.

Small concentrations of THC were more potent and selective against gamma herpes viruses than the commonly used antiviral drugs acyclovir, gancicyclovir and foscamet, said Dr. Medveczky, a professor in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

The USF researchers suggest that THC selectively inhibits the spread of gamma herpes viruses by targeting a gene these viruses all share called ORF50.

Dr. Medveczky emphasized that more studies are needed. "We have not evaluated the effect of THC in an animal model yet so we do not recommend people start using pot to prevent or treat cancers."

In fact, Dr. Meveczky said, THC has also been shown to suppress the immune system so smoking marijuana could "do more harm than good" to patients whose immune systems are often already weakened.

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#14 hyphaenation


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Posted 28 June 2008 - 07:27 PM

I just read this article about some medical studies on anti-inflamitory properties of Cannabis.

Curative leaf
By Amy Maxmen
June 23rd, 2008
Web edition

Compound in marijuana reduces inflammation without the psychological effects

Mary Jane’s got more goodness in her buds than Cheech or Chong ever imagined. A compound found to ease swelling, pain and inflammation has now been extracted from marijuana. The compound, structurally different from anti-inflammatory medications now on the market, provides new avenues for drug development to help those who suffer from diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease, a new study reports. And unlike THC, the other Cannabis compound with a similar anti-inflammatory outcome, this chemical has nothing to do with feeling high.

“We were stunned to find a totally different compound within the same plant with anti-inflammatory properties,” says Jürg Gertsch, a biologist at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Zürich, Switzerland, and lead researcher on the study, published June 23 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The team extracted the compound, called beta-caryophyllene, from oily resin in Cannabis sativa L. buds and fed it to mice that were in the midst of an induced immune attack. After the mice ate the extract, their inflammation went down. The team then demonstrated that beta-caryophyllene works by turning on CB2 cannabinoid receptors, molecules that THC acts on and that are also known to reduce swelling, pain and inflammation.

THC works its anti-inflammatory magic by activating both CB2 and CB1 receptor molecules; CB1 receptors are concentrated in the brain and lead to the psychological effects of marijuana. Beta-caryophyllene, however, has little or no effect on CB1 and, therefore, might be used to ease inflammation without the psychological side effects, the authors suggest.

Though its anti-inflammatory effect hadn’t been proven before this study, beta-caryophyllene has previously been isolated from a number of plants and spices including black pepper, oregano and cinnamon. In fact, essential oils from the pepper plant contain more beta-caryophyllene than marijuana plants do. But the amount of pepper one would have to ingest to get the desired benefit might also lead to a nasty stomach ache, Gertsch says.

Doctors often steer away from prescribing herbs and spices to patients because the dose of active ingredients can’t be controlled. “Most physicians don’t want to administer drugs where the amount of the compound goes up and down between 1.5 to 200 milligrams,” says Raphael Mechoulam, a medicinal chemist at Hebrew University in Jerusalem whose team identified THC from Cannabis in 1964.

Also, beta-caryophyllene has a limited shelf life once it’s no longer in the living plant. When kept dry, it becomes oxidized and its activity diminishes. The fresher, the better, Gertsch says.

Pharmaceutical companies often make drugs out of purified plant extracts. THC is one active ingredient in Sativex, for example, a drug approved in Canada to treat multiple sclerosis pain.

This study is a testament to the fact that plants contain pharmaceutical cocktails that doctors have yet to dream of, says Ethan Russo, a neurologist and advisor for GW Pharmaceuticals in Vashon, Wash. “While it’s possible to manipulate the molecule, that may not be the best approach. The whole plant extract may be more efficacious,” Russo says.

Many current anti-inflammatory medications, such as Vioxx, come with terrible side effects. But here is a nontoxic compound, already a part of our diet, that appears to do the same job, Russo says. “It always amuses me when nature does it better.”

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#15 hyphaenation


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Posted 08 May 2009 - 01:49 PM

Lecture by Cannabinoid expert Dr. Robert Melamede.

NORML National Marijuana Forum Dr. Robert Melamede - CU Boulder 2009

[Direct Link]


[Direct Link]


[Direct Link]


[Direct Link]


Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 09:48 PM.

#16 ShroomGuerilla



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Posted 08 May 2009 - 02:28 PM

Proof of the true benefits of THC ingestion .

#17 hyphaenation


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Posted 08 May 2009 - 03:26 PM

I like the part where he describes how the bodies endoannabinoids are "all pervasive" and modulate and interface with a multitude of cellular systems and functions.

Here's some background info:

The cannabis plant is an amazing source of medicinal chemicals, the reason being it is the only plant that truly taps into our endocannabinoid system. While marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years, it is only within the past fifteen years that we have begun to understand why marijuana has so many medicinal properties. As a result, research into this area has exploded. One cannot understand medical marijuana without first understanding the endocannabinoid system and the fundamental role that it plays in the lives of all animals, especially man.
The endocannabinoid system is composed of receptors (CB1-nervous system and CB2-immune system) on cells that bind exocannabinoids like THC, and endocannabinoids that our bodies produce, like anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2AG). Both of the latter chemicals are made from essential fatty acids such as are found in hemp oil.
When cannabinoid receptors are activated, various biochemical properties in cells are altered, and these cells then alter communication with other cells. However, all body systems must be regulated, therefore, enzymes exist that break down our endocannabinoids to keep this system in balance (homeostasis, see below). The most studied enzyme that breaks down some endocannabinoids is fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH). Specifically, FAAH breaks down anandamide, thereby decreasing endocannabinoid activity. In order to really appreciate the medicinal properties of this plant, we must understand the basic properties of life itself. How ironic, after so many cannabis users have been persecuted for believing that marijuana is the tree of life, in many respects it is.

For the first time in the history of mankind, we can look at life from a truly scientific prospective and understand its basic properties. We will not go into the details of the physics of life, but rather we will describe some of the basic characteristics of life from the perspective of far from equilibrium thermodynamics. For our purposes, these ominous terms can be easily understood. Let’s start with equilibrium. Scientifically, equilibrium is a state of maximum disorder (entropy), and simultaneously, a state of minimum potential (the ability to do something). In other words, equilibrium is the opposite of life. Thermodynamics refers to the flow of energy. It is, in fact, this flow that keeps life away from equilibrium. The movement towards equilibrium is characterized by aging, illness and death. On an organismic level, living systems maintain the critical flow of organizing energy by eating, sensing the environment, and getting rid of waste products. However, the same principle of extracting potential from the environment is true at the cellular level.
A unique characteristic of matter driven further from equilibrium, is that it possesses a natural tendency to create new forms of organization. From the human prospective, moving further from equilibrium can mean regaining one’s health and increasing one’s organization and energy flow (as occurs with physical training). Similarly, learning and enhanced thinking skills (such as state of mind) can represent movement from equilibrium. Another irony, our cannabinoid system is totally intertwined with these processes.

In the biosphere, the creative process is evolution. As evolution proceeds, we see increasing complexity, a property most obviously characteristic of man and his society.
However, this complexity is not only between man and his environment, but within man himself, existing at all levels of organization. Before going further into the endocannabinoid system and the impact of marijuana on it, a critical term that we must understand is homeostasis. It essentially means biochemical balance, but dynamic balance not static balance. A simplistic visual image of the dynamic character of biochemical homeostasis would be a bunch of jugglers balanced on a bunch of seesaws that are balanced on each other, while moving on a roller-coaster ride. The level of complexity in this seemingly impossible task is readily accomplished biochemically by living organisms all the time. In fact, the endocannabinoid system plays a critical role in coordinating the many balancing acts associated with life and does so across scales of organization. The impact of cannabinoids ranges in scale from controlling biochemistry within cells to controlling social interactions and regulating political thought [1].

Another fundamental characteristic of living systems is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Pieces of a system work together and create something new and different, something that would not have been predicted from observing the individual components in isolation. How does this phenomenon impact on the health of cells, individuals, communities and society, and is the role cannabinoid system? Is consciousness an emergent phenomenon, with the cannabinoid system being a critical player in the emergence process?
Before we look at the endocannabinoid system, let’s restate some of the physics of life.

All foods provide us with building blocks and the energy necessary for organizing the building process. The chemicals that we call food can be viewed as charged batteries.
They have potential to do things such as promoting growth, health and evolution. Energy flow in a living system is similar to what occurs when a battery is used to do something.
In both cases, energy comes from the flow of electrons. Living systems are essentially rechargeable, biochemical batteries, and our biochemical pathways constitute the wires.
Without going into details, the flow of biochemical electricity produces free radicals, biochemical friction.


Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that modify life’s chemicals. Free radicals have three critical biological functions. On the one hand, due to their reactivity, free radicals alter the chemical properties of DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. By doing so, they disrupt biochemical organization. Therefore, the destructive nature of free radicals may be viewed as the friction of life. On the other hand, as a result of free radical-induced biochemical modifications, free radicals serve to signal the cell that all is not right, either with respect to energy flow from environmental, and/or the internal energy flows (such as mental stress). Thirdly, the destructive power of free radicals has been harnessed by the immune system to help destroy infectious invaders. Immune cells actually make hydrogen peroxide and the chemical equivalent of Clorox to help kill pathogens.


Over 500 million years ago, cells began to communicate with one another and to develop new levels of cooperation that, in turn, allowed for increased levels of complexity (spatially, temporally, and physically). These primitive, communicating, multi-cellular organisms began the evolutionary process that lead to the body systems that we’re familiar with today: circulatory, digestive, endocrine, immunological, musculoskeletal, nervous, reproductive, respiratory and tegumentary (skin). Interestingly, it was at this critical time in life’s history that the endocannabinoid system had its origins and found its place as a critical modulator of biological activities. As evolution proceeded, and systems and their interactions grew more complicated, the endocannabinoid system increasingly played an important role in the dynamic balancing acts that characterize not only life, but also economic, social, political, and religious institutions. As our understanding of the magnitude and diversity of cannabinoid biology increases, it naturally extends beyond the biological realm through its regulation of complex human behavior.
All cells exhibit basic biological properties. Typically they are replicating, performing some differentiation related task, resting or dying, all the while communicating with their neighbors, ideally, for the good of the organism as a whole. Cannabinoids regulate all of these basic activities as a function of cell type, dose, etc. What are the implications of this broad cannabinoid based activity that spans from sub-cellular activities to consciousness and beyond? We will examine some of the cannabinoid-based scientific discoveries that occurred in 2006 and see what picture is painted regarding the essential role of cannabinoids in human health.

First, let’s clarify our starting point. Cannabis plant material is highly variable in composition. Therefore, even in the absence of governmental interference, the plant material is not ideally suited for most scientific experimental studies (which need not limit its medicinal usefulness). Accurate dosing and reproducibility are critical components of scientific inquiry. These constraints are met experimentally by using agonists, chemicals that stimulate specifically the CB1 or CB2 receptors, and antagonists, chemicals that inhibit specifically the CB1 or CB2 receptors. Today, we know that many of the activities produced by cannabinoids occur via cannabinoid receptor independent mechanisms, further demonstrating how complex cannabinoid activities are. In addition to the new synthetic cannabinoids, naturally occurring THC and CBD are often used experimentally. Thus, we mostly learn about the cannabinoid system without actually using products isolated from the cannabis plant. When the science and observations of medical marijuana users are put together, the benefits of medical marijuana should be obvious to all.

A good place to begin examining cannabinoid discoveries of 2006 is the nervous system.
Current knowledge clearly shows that the brain has robust regenerative capacities. One of the newly discovered surprises is that nerve regeneration, that develops from neural progenitor cells, is regulated by endocannabinoids [2]. In other words, when there is brain injury, as occurs from head injury or stroke, the brain produces marijuana-like compounds [3] that are important limiters of damage and promoters of healing.
The ability to feel pain is a critical biological response to injury (it helps us avoid it). We now know that the level of cannabinoid receptors is turned up in response to chronic inflammation and its associated pain. The body, apparently in effort to reduce pain [4], enhances endocannabinoid activity. This response is not surprising since endocannabinoids are direct regulators of pain receptors [5].
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that helps protect cells against free radical damage that typically results from biochemical imbalances. Mice that genetically lack the ability to produce this enzyme develop ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease). We now know that cannabinoids protect against the development of this disease, however, they do not protect against the death associated with this illness [6], a dichotomy not yet understood.
A source of pain for many individuals involves trigeminal vascular neurons, which are thought to be involved with initiating migraine headaches. Ackerman et al [7] conclude "CB receptors may have therapeutic potential in migraine, cluster headache or other primary headaches, although the potential hazards of psychoactive side-effects that accompany cannabinoid treatments may be complex to overcome." This type of strange commentary is pervasive in the scientific literature. The default perspective found in the scientific literature is that one should endure pain and suffering rather than bare the terrible psychological effects of cannabis consumption. The mind-altering properties of narcotic pain-killers, antidepressants, tranquilizers and sleep medications are okay, just stay away from the killer weed. Despite ongoing governmental malfeasance, additional research examining the role of the cannabinoid system and migraine headaches suggests a relationship between the headaches and an endocannabinoid deficiency [8].
With cannabinoids intimately involved with so many biological processes, what other diseases might be associated with cannabinoid deficiencies? Both anecdotally and experimentally, cannabinoids seem to benefit those suffering from multiple sclerosis. In one study, the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone was shown to significantly reduce spasticity-related pain [9]. In another study with multiple sclerosis patients, cannabinoids decreased the frequency of urination [10]. In a commentary on a newly published article [11] Raphael Mechoulam, the father of cannabinoids chemistry, writes that multiple sclerosis may disrupt the endocannabinoid protection mechanism [12].
A general theme of cannabinoid activity is inhibition of inflammation and related free radical damage. In the immune system, cannabinoids regulate the balance between free radical production and their inhibition [13]. Inflammation and free radical production are important defense mechanisms used by the immune system to fight infectious invaders.
The immune system regulates the level of inflammation in the circulatory system. A chronic pro-inflammatory response is a prime determinant in the development of arteriosclerosis, and can be reversed by cannabinoids in mice [14]. Unfortunately, the comparable experiment in humans has not yet been done. However, mice often serve as a good model for human immunology.

The global homeostatic role of the endocannabinoid system is again demonstrated by their control of the skeletal system. Earlier publications lead to some confusion in that some data indicated that cannabinoids might promote osteoporosis, whereas others suggested the opposite. Experiments published in 2006 provided new insights into the regulation of bone mass by the endocannabinoid system. Mice that have had their CB2 receptor genetically "knocked out," develop age associated loss of bone mass, a condition that appears similar to osteoporosis in humans [15]. Thus, CB2 simulation appears to prevent bone loss. Similar results were found with CB1 knock out mice [16].

Many people use and enjoy marijuana because of the effects that it has on one’s consciousness. The year 2006 has produced some interesting new science in this area, in general, supporting the anti-depressive effects of cannabis. A study by Parish and Nicols [17] showed that stimulation of the serotonin receptor (5-HT2a) produced the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol. The obvious question is how much of the antidepressive effects produced by serotonin uptake inhibitors is due to the production of endocannabinoids? Similarly, another study demonstrated that cannabinoids reduce anxiety by stimulating another class of serotonin receptors (5-HT1a) [18].

The possibility of increasing the levels of endocannabinoids by decreasing their rate of breakdown is an exciting new area of drug development. In agreement with earlier findings [19], elevating anandamide levels by inhibiting FAAH with an inhibitor "elicits significant, anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and analgesic effects" [20]. These findings, of course, provide unmentioned support for the use of cannabis for these same conditions.
We know that elevating endocannabinoid levels has affects that are similar to consuming THC [21].

Cancer is one of the most exciting areas under investigation for the therapeutic application of cannabinoids. For many years the anti-nausea properties of cannabinoids was thought to be the primary use of cannabis for cancer therapy. Over the past few years, the greater potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer has been revealed.
Cannabinoids have been demonstrated to kill the variety of tumor cells, as well as to inhibit activities associated with metastasis (spreading) [22]. During this past year THC was shown to inhibit the replication of breast cancer cells [23]. Activation of cannabinoid receptors decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels necessary for tumors to grow) and metastasis, while increasing apoptosis (cell death) of melanomas in mice [24]. Additionally, cannabinoids were found to kill pancreatic cancer cells [25]. In 2006, the world had its first pilot human clinical trial of THC for cancer treatment [26]. This study was too small for proper statistical analysis, however, it seems that the drug was safe and inhibited tumor growth albeit temporally.
Since cannabis is frequently used by cancer patients to relieve nausea, lack of appetite, depression, and difficulty sleeping [27], a concern has been its possible effect on chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity. A recent study demonstrated that a variety of plant derived cannabinoids inhibited a protein that pumps therapeutic drugs out of cancer cells and is typically associated with drug resistance [28], thus providing another possible significant benefit to cancer patients who consume cannabis.
Since smoking is the most widely used route of cannabis administration, a long-term concern has been its possible carcinogenic effects. A recent epidemiological study demonstrated that cannabis smoking does not seem to cause cancers of the respiratory tract [29], confirming my earlier prediction [30].

All humans suffer from a common biochemical imbalance. We are all aging, and aging is believed to be a consequence of accumulated free radical damage. With respect to the biochemistry of aging, cannabinoids appear to be beneficial. They not only appear to inhibit age related illnesses such as multiple sclerosis [31] and diabetes [32], but their absence increases the probability of premature death [33]. However, with respect to the body’s method of defense against certain infectious diseases, an excess of cannabinoids could be harmful or even lethal, in particular, when fighting intracellular parasites such as those responsible for Legionella disease [34] and tuberculosis [35].
Another possible danger that may result from cannabis consumption involves the liver. On the one hand, recent data shows that hepatitis C patients who consume cannabis are more likely to successfully complete there treatment regime [36]. On the other hand, turning off the CB1 receptors may be beneficial for treatment of liver fibrosis [37] since CB1 activation seems to be involved in this pathology [38].

In the marijuana plant, nature has provided us with a well-stocked medicinal chemistry set. Everyday new peer reviewed scientific publications support and extend the benefits that this plant can provide mankind. When you couple the scientific data with the observations of medical marijuana users, the support for medical marijuana use is overwhelming. How then is it possible that there remains resistance to the medicinal use of marijuana? A possible answer may be found in the simple truth that in any population of people there will be those who are cannabinoid endowed and others who are cannabinoid deficient. When the deficiency involves the areas of the brain that allow us to change our minds and replace out dated information with new information, change becomes difficult. These individuals unfortunately lack some of the necessary cannabinoid-based biochemistry. This scenario raises the question: are cannabinoid deficient people selected for by our political process? [1]

1. Melamede, R. J. Endocannabinoids: Multi-scaled, Global Homeostatic Regulators of Cells and Society. 601, (2006).
2. Aguado, T. et al. The endocannabinoid system promotes astroglial differentiation by acting on neural progenitor cells. J Neurosci 26, 1551-1561 (2006).
3. Ashton, J. C. et al. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and middle cerebral artery occlusion induce expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the brain. Neurosci Lett (2006).
4. Amaya, F. et al. TheInduction of CB(1) cannabinoid receptor by inflammation in primary afferent neurons facilitates antihyperalgesic effect of peripheral CB(1) agonist. Pain (2006).
5. Lever, I. J. & Rice, A. S. Cannabinoids and pain. Handb Exp Pharmacol 265-306 (2007).
6. Bilsland, L. G. et al. Increasing cannabinoid levels by pharmacological and genetic manipulation delay disease progression in SOD1 mice. FASEB J 20, 1003-1005 (2006).
7. Akerman, S., Holland, P. & Goadsby, P. J. Cannabinoid (CB1) receptor activation inhibits trigeminovascular neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther (2006).
8. Sarchielli, P. et al. Endocannabinoids in Chronic Migraine: CSF Findings Suggest a System Failure. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006).
9. Wissel, J. et al. Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. J Neurol (2006).
10. Freeman, R. M. et al. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMSLUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct (2006).
11. Witting, A. et al. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disrupts endocannabinoid-mediated neuroprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 6362-6367 (2006).
12. Shohami, E. & Mechoulam, R. Multiple sclerosis may disrupt endocannabinoid brain protection mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 6087-6088 (2006).
13. Melamede, R. Indications for Cannabinoids: Autoimmune Diseases (Haworth Press, 2002).
14. Steffens, S. et al. Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Nature 434, 782-786 (2005).
15. Ofek, O. et al. Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 696-701 (2006).
16. Tam, J. et al. Involvement of Neuronal Cannabinoid Receptor, CB1, in Regulation of Bone Mass and Bone Remodeling. Mol Pharmacol (2006).
17. Parrish, J. C. & Nichols, D. E. Serotonin 5-HT receptor activation induces 2-arachidonoylglycerol release through a phospholipase c-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem (2006).
18. Braida, D., Limonta, V., Malabarba, L., Zani, A. & Sala, M. 5-HT(1A) receptors are involved in the anxiolytic effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM 404, the anandamide transport inhibitor, in Sprague-Dawley rats. Eur J Pharmacol (2006).
19. Gobbi, G. et al. Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 18620-18625 (2005).
20. Piomelli, D. et al. Pharmacological Profile of the Selective FAAH Inhibitor KDS-4103 (URB597). CNS Drug Rev 12, 21-38 (2006).
21. Solinas, M. et al. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide produces THC-like discriminative and neurochemical effects that are enhanced by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) but not by inhibition of anandamide transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther S (2007).
22. Grimaldi, C. et al. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res 312, 363-373 (2006).
23. Caffarel, M. M., Sarrio, D., Palacios, J., Guzman, M. & Sanchez, C. Delta}9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation. Cancer Res 66, 6615-6621 (2006).
24. Blazquez, C. et al. Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. FASEB J (2006).
25. Fogli, S. et al. Cannabinoid derivatives induce cell death in pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 cells via a receptor-independent mechanism. FEBS Lett 580, 1733-1739 (2006).
26. Guzman, M. et al. A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Br J Cancer (2006).
27. Martin, B. R. & Wiley, J. L. Mechanism of action of cannabinoids: how it may lead to treatment of cachexia, emesis, and pain. J Support Oncol 2, 305-14; discussion 314-6 (2004).
28. Holland, M. L. et al. The effects of cannabinoids on P-glycoprotein transport and expression in multidrug resistant cells. Biochem Pharmacol 71, 1146-1154 (2006).
29. Hashibe, M. et al. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 1829-1834 (2006).
30. Melamede, R. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic. Harm Reduct J 2, 21 (2005).
31. Pryce, G. et al. Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain 126, 2191-2202 (2003).
32. Li, X., Kaminski, N. E. & Fischer, L. J. Examination of the immunosuppressive effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in streptozotocin-induced autoimmune diabetes. Int Immunopharmacol 1, 699-712 (2001).
33. Zimmer, A., Zimmer, A. M., Hohmann, A. G., Herkenham, M. & Bonner, T. I. Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 5780-5785 (1999).
34. Lu, T., Newton, C., Perkins, I., Friedman, H. & Klein, T. W. Cannabinoid treatment suppresses the T helper cell polarizing function of mouse dendritic cells stimulated with Legionella pneumophila infection. J Pharmacol Exp Ther (2006).
35. Munckhof, W. J., Konstantinos, A., Wamsley, M., Mortlock, M. & Gilpin, C. A cluster of tuberculosis associated with use of a marijuana water pipe. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 7, 860-865 (2003).
36. Sylvestre, D. L., Clements, B. J. & Malibu, Y. Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol S 18, 1057-1063 (2006).
37. Teixeira-Clerc, F. et al. CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonism: a new strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Nat Med (2006).
38. Hezode, C. et al. Daily cannabis smoking as a risk factor for progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 42, 63-71 (2005).

Dr. Robert J. Melamede Ph.D.
Robert Melamede Ph.D.

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#18 hyphaenation


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Posted 08 May 2009 - 04:01 PM

Another way of explaining it:

Info on Cannabinoids

By Dr. Robert Melamede, Ph.D.

The Cannabinoid System has been around for over 600 million years. Before the Dinosaurs. The Cannabinoid System is continuously evolutioning and has been retained by all new species. Food and feeding is at the heart of the Cannabinoid System.
1. Cannabinoids are in every living animal on the planet above Hydra and Mollusks, with the exception of insects. Bodies are homeostatically maintained by the Cannabinoid System.

2. Mothers give their babies a booster shot of cannabinoids in mothers milk to give them the munchies because they have to learn to eat. (they've been fed thru the umbilical cord and did not have to know how to eat.)

3. Mice lacking the CB1 receptors don't like any changes. If they are moved to another part of the cage they act upset and when they are put back to the original spot in the cage they relax, but if then put into another part of the cage they get upset again. Comment: I wonder if people, especially drug warriors, had their CB1 receptors blocked then they would resist change and the ones of us that have unblocked CB1 receptors enjoy the benefits of cannabinoids are a lot more relaxed and not paranoid about or over change. Interesting thought. It turns out that that thought is absolutely correct. Many people' brains are not capable of a good connection to the CB1 CB2 receptors.

4. All new species utilize cannabinoids.

5. By being alive and breathing air our bodies produce "free radicals". Cannabinoids help to reverse this action.

6. Cannabinoids do kill brain cells, but the brain cells they kill are called "Glioma" or Cancer of the brain(Tumor). All other brain cells are protected and healed by cannabinoids. (Glioma cells cannot tolerate the action of cannabinoids)

7. Cannabinoids protect against sunburn and skin cancer because of the CB1 receptors in our skin.

8. Cannabinoids slow down the aging process. Mice that their brains respond to cannabinoids live longer and mice that have brains that block the CB1 receptors die younger.

9. Activity in the evolutionary advanced areas of the brain is increased in cannabinoids receptors and promotes higher consciousness levels.

10. Cannabinoids are even found in the white blood cells (CB2 receptors). The CB2 receptors are found predominantly on immunological cells and regulate the shift in the immune system to the anti-inflammatory mode.

11. Cannabinoids protect the heart against Arythmia.

12. The way it works on pain is there is specific nerves that deal with pain. They are called vanilloid-Receptors.

Anandamide(sanscript word for "Blissful Amide"), the bodies internally produced marijuana binds with the nerve endings, reducing pain. Anandamides are produced internally by our bodies in response to a whole variety of conditions. As an example, Aspirin prevents the breakdown of Anandamide, the internally produced marijuana to activate & start working at easing pain. How many old lady's say they "WOULD NEVER" use marijuana & are actually using the equivalent of marijuana that their bodies produce as a natural activity, & don't even realize it. And how many politicians and citizens of the US do this also & aren't even aware they are condemning something that their bodies make naturally. Anecdotal evidence is valid because when a person smokes marijuana & it relieves their pain, then they smoke it again & it relieves their pain again it becomes a fact known only to that person, but nonetheless true.

13. In the case of most autoimmune diseases, the bodies immune cells produces free radicals & is destroying it's own body as a foreign object. Cannabis pushes the immune system into anti inflammatory mode & helps slow the progression of that disease, thereby slowing down the aging process.

14. Seizures are controlled by marijuana not only THC, but non-psychoactive cannabidiol.(CBD) The exact mechanism is not known, however HEMP is high in CBD's & can cancel out the psychoactive high of THC & at the same time benefits the user or smoker. Cannabinoids control everything in our bodies including our minds.

15. There are many other things that Cannabinoids do in the body, besides attaching to the CB1 and CB2 receptors, the main cannabinoid receptors in the higher part of our brain. Cannabinoids affect our skin and other parts of our bodies.

16. Pharmaceutical companies are working at sythesizing different cannabinoid components and different types of strains of marijuana. If they can succeed, then there will be more choices for you and I to choose from and we will be able to use what works best for our particular bodies.

17. The natural course for mankind, because of the location of our CB1 CB2 the brains main receptors, is to be more stoned.

18. Drug warriors are not doing what they are doing to us because they are intentionally evil, but because they are more primitive(obtuse comes to mind). They look at the world with fear and hostility not cooperativity and understanding.
19. According to a brain function study of 150 depressed people Cannabis protects the brain against healthy cell death and it also protects Neurons.

20. Cannabinoids dilate our brochial tubes and help asthsma sufferers to breath both in and out. Because of the balance that is maintained in our bodies for good health there are instances where it works backwards, where death is possible, if too much is smoked. This goes back to the effects of cannabinoids on individuals and if it doesn't work for you, you should not use it. There was some old studies that were done back in 1977 where "AEROSOLIZED THC" was used on patients. This is not what the government tells us when they say it's not medicine, but we are all familiar with the 7 government patients that are supplied marijuana to be used as medicine and we know the government is lying.

21. Natural pain eradication by cannabinol used by our receptors.

22. Cannabinoids control how we view the future. If you're loaded with bad experiences you're going to be fearful of the future. Lots of smoking of cannabinoids makes you want to be in the future. Lack of change vs embracing the future and changes. Conservative people might die prematurely, stressed, uptight and fearful (genocide). Open minded people and mice are able to change, whereas; people with defective receptors and knock-out mice (mice that have had their receptors removed) will keep going to the platform after it has been removed. They will be fearful of change.

23. Cannabinoids prevent and treat certain types of Cancer. Glioma (Brain Cancer) along with pheochromocytoma, skin cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, Lymphoma and Leukemia. Cannabinoids may prevent or cure cancer. Cannabinoids have a way of killing the bad cells and protecting the good ones.

24. Cannabis gives relief to Liver Disease & constant uncontrollable itching. Also, lack of sleep and depression and has been doing so for 600 million years.

25. THC in low doses relieves anxiety, while huge doses promote anxiety. (It's too strong like Marinol) Smoking marijuana relieves anxiety. Marijuana promotes sleeping better and normal persons when they are deprived of marijuana would have difficulty sleeping. (One other thing I'd like to add: When ingested, delta 9 THC, on the first pass thru the liver, changes into delta 11 THC. Five times as psychoactive and much longer lasting. I don't know how many people understand that. Ralph)

26. Cannabis protects nerve cells from dying thus protects against Altzheimers Disease.

27. Our bodies make up marijuana like compounds to make us hungry. (gives us the munchies) Then turn off those compounds & we don't have the munchies anymore when it has had enough food. The cannabinoid system first appeared 600 million years ago. Food & feeding is at the heart of evolution & the development of new species.

28. Head injuries cause the body to produce Endo-cannabinoids to protect itself as well as protecting the body against Nerve Gas. Marijuana turns on the bodies Protective Mode, because when you're hungry the body makes Cannabinoids to turn on your hunger. Cannabinoids turn on the expression of a Particular Gene (at the same time it prevents the expression of other Genes). How the Marijuana Receptors change the Integral Bio-Chemistry. Some of the Molecules that are involved or been studied in a Model Organism. There is a worm that people study alot. They have very simple Nervous Systems so you can define what exactly is going on. It turns out this one Particular Molecule regulates what is known as a Transcription Factor (It turns on the Expression of Genes.) It turns out that when you turn on the Expression of this Particular Gene of the Worm Model it actually promotes Mimicking a condition that actually Promotes Longevity of these worms. This Parallels what we've seen in mice. Because Marijuana exhibits Free Radicals so people who've been using Cannabis, Long Term, tend to Live Longer & Look Younger. Marijuana Promotes your Health by affecting your Nerve Cells, by Balancing your Immune System, by Reducing Fat Deposition in your Cardio-Vascular System. It looks as if it helps Burn the Synthesis of things like Cholesterol.

29. New research shows that the argument over outlawing cannabis because it "Causes Cancer" is no longer valid. There are Nicotine Receptors in your throat. There are no Cannabinoid Receptors in your throat. Cells have a Bio-chemical Program known as "APOPTOSIS". This Bio-chemical Program is activated when cells too damaged to repair themselves commit suicide. There is a Bio-chemical Pathway that controls that. Nicotine activates a path that protects the cells from dying. Smoking anything puts Carcinogens into your Air Passage-ways and Cardio-Vascular system. Cells that get damaged by smoke die and that's what you want to happen. Cells to die before they become Cancer Cells.

30. Cannabinoids modulate pain peripherally. In our bodies there are special kinds of pain receptors, known as Vanaloid receptors & they are sensitive to things like heat & excessive pressure & they are responsible for pain. It turns out that a natural regulator of that that down-regulates pain. The endocannabinoid known as Anandamide, the blissful amide, when you combine Sanskrit for ananda & amide for the chemical type. It's clearly known that cannabis can regulate pain, that's been done in numerous studies, but recently , as we learn more about the molecular mechanisms of pain & cannabinoid action what we have now learned is that there is a lot of crosstalk between the cannabinoid system & the morphine, the opioid system. The name of an article that just came out is called Chronic morphine modulates the contents of the endocannabinoid tuorachidonalglycerol in the rat brain. So, tuorachidonalglycerol is another endocannabinoid.

We feel pain thru the sensory nerves that are telling us that we're in a painful situation & on the other hand we feel it within our minds because certain areas of our brain subsequently get tickled. What we are seeing now is that the cannabinoid system works both peripherally & centrally & what we are gonna talk about here is this new work that links the cannabinoids more with the opioids in that opioids & cannabinoids are among the most widely consumed drugs of abuse in humans & phenomena of cross-tolerations or mutual potentiation demonstrated between these two drugs. Some of the recent work on pain has come out of England as a result of work done by G.W. Pharmaceuticals which is a company that specializes in producing cannabis plants.

They've developed different strains that have different ratios of the cannabinoids & those different plants have different properties. In the past I've mentioned Bi-Polar disorder. Some people who are Bi-Polar & are depressive find Sativa's are good to help elevate them & if they're in an elevated mood & in a manic state they have to be brought down alittle & the Indica's seem to be better for that & likewise they're different ratio's of these cannabinoids that are thought to benefit for example pain, more than others, that are thought to benefit auto-immune diseases. This is being worked out, but what I'd like to go into now is that some of the new links that seem to be occurring in this particular study that I just mentioned, what they are finding is that chronic administration of Opioids is in fact down-regulating the tuorachidonalglycerol which as mentioned, is one of the endo-cannabinoids. Interestingly the Anandamide level seem to be remaining the same, but this other one, tuorachidonalglycerol seems to be down-regulated.

In knock-out mice, these are mice where a particular gene is missing, it turns out that you can eliminate alot of the withdrawal systems associated with opium if you have knocked out the receptors. When people go thru withdrawal, they get terribly nauseous & feel horribly sick, well, what we do know cannabinoids control nausea. That's why it's being used by people who are receiving Chemo-therapy or disorders where they are chronically nauseous. Cannabinoids can be very effective for that. So what we are seeing is that morphine turns down the Endogenous cannabinoid Arachidonic acid & that seems to be involved in some of the addictive behavior & this is kind of interesting because we know that cannabinoids themselves other than very twisted circumstances do not show addictive behavior. On the one hand we have the cannabinoid potentiating the morphine, in that people who need morphine for pain can often use 50% of what they normally use by including cannabinoids & on the other hand, we're seeing that the cannabinoid receptor system is involved in addiction & I mentioned a long time ago, that cannabinoids can be beneficial for some people in their attempt to withdraw & now we're seeing support for that in that chronic morphine administration is turning off one of the cannabinoids that's in turn, turning on some of the withdrawal systems.

31. Cannabinoids represent a general class of chemicals, not just cannabis & THC in plants, but rather also cannabinoids that are produced in our bodies. These happen to be Lipid compounds that result from burning & making fats. The thing that is so unique about this system represents how it works so broadly for various health reasons. That is that every single system in our bodies & by system I mean our nervous system or digestive system or reproductive system or immunological system or endocrine system, you name it & the cannabinoids are involved in maintaining what's known as homostasis balance. We need to have the right amount of these components of this system which includes the compounds like THC which is better known as Lygan. They bind to specific receptors & then they are broken down by another enzyme that breaks down these things.

So, we have a whole network of bio-chemistry that's influencing everything in our bodies. The question that arises is that the whole is always greater than the sum of its parts. The system, the cannabinoid system influencing everything in our bodies & the question is what are the nature of the wholes? What are the greater pictures that emerge out of this cannabinoid systems activity.

So we see, for example, regulating reproductive system, digestive system, immune system & when they are all working together in a way that is concertedly modulated by the cannabinoid system what can we expect to see, & I would suggest that what's represented by the influences of cannabinoids & cannabis on our mind, in that it opens up our minds to new ways of thinking, it free's us from being stuck in a single track of thinking & that's exactly the kind of thought processes that are required as we move into the future which is generally composed of the unknown. What the cannabinoid system is doing is giving us a way to peacefully & lovingly adapt to change & be open to change. We see in these mice that we can knock-out the cannabinoid system that they are afraid of change. The implications of this are really profound if in fact we have people that are shifted one way or the other in terms of their ability to modulate & accept change that is of profound importance because we see people that are afraid to look forward, happily embracing the future.

There are health ramifications for all of this. The cannabinoid system can help us with cardio-vascular disease where it reduces infarctsize with auto-immune diseases where it helps ameliorate & prevent the development of a whole variety of auto-immune diseases including things like arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, crones disease & it's also involved with, as a natural regulator of our pain. So we have this holistic medicine that's influencing so many things & I forgot to mention that it regulates our memories & mental pains & in fact, regulates alot of life/death decisions in our cells, nerve cells in particular, which is why it's so beneficial for neurological disorders often associated with the aging, such as Alzheimer's disease. What we're seeing is a holistic medicine & again it has to be used appropriately, too little is no good, & we may be making enough. Individuals may be making enough, but there could be many many people who are not making enough or their system is not active enough who will be able to benefit from the use of cannabis & other cannabinoids. To regulate all of the things we've mentioned that it regulates. So, we've got a holistic health program. To find the balance that's required for our optimum health is something that's totally built into the cannabinoid system. Therefore, it should be readily available to use wisely.

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#19 the_chosen_one


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Posted 08 May 2009 - 04:14 PM



Edited by the_chosen_one, 08 May 2009 - 04:17 PM.
lol, post four thousand, 420... what are the odds heh.

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#20 StroFun


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Posted 08 May 2009 - 04:26 PM




This is some really important information that needs to be spread.
Thanks :headbang:

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