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You Have An Endocannabinoid System- Cannabis Revelations


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#21 hyphaenation

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Posted 08 May 2009 - 05:36 PM

Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects

http://www.jci.org/a...25509/version/1

Related:

http://en.wikipedia....ki/Neurogenesis

Cannabinoids Promote Neurogenesis In The Brain, Study Says

http://norml.org/ind...m?Group_ID=6701

October 13, 2005 - Baltimore, MD, USA

Baltimore, MD: The administration of synthetic cannabinoids promotes the proliferation of newborn neurons (nerve cells) in the rat brain which likely accounts for the drug's anti-anxiety and mood elevating effects, according to preclinical trial data published today in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Investigators found that the administration of synthetic cannabinoids increased neurogenesis in the rat hippocampus and significantly reduced measures of anxiety and depression-like behavior. Neurogenesis (the birth of neuronal cells) is thought to enable organisms to adapt to their environment and influence their learning and memory throughout life.

"Cannabinoids appear to be the only illicit drug whose capacity to produce increased hippocampal newborn neurons is positively correlated with its anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects," authors concluded.

Alcohol consumption has also been associated with a decrease in neurogenesis in adults.

"These findings add to the growing body of scientific evidence indicating that cannabis is non-toxic and may hold significant neurological benefits, including the treatment of certain neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease," NORML Senior Policy Analyst Paul Armentano said.

Previous research has shown cannabinoids to be neuroprotective in animals against brain damage caused by alcohol and/or stroke.





Cannabis.and. the. Brain: A User's Guide


http://norml.org/ind...m?Group_ID=6812

by Paul Armentano

Senior Policy Analyst
NORML | NORML Foundation

• Cannabinoids & Neurogenesis
• Cannabis & Neuroprotection
• Cannabinoids & Glioma
• Cannabinoids & Neurodegeneration
• Cannabis & Cognition

Preclinical data recently published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation demonstrating that cannabinoids may spur brain cell growth has reignited the international debate regarding the impact of marijuana on the brain. However, unlike previous pseudo-scientific campaigns that attempted to link pot smoking with a litany of cognitive abnormalities, modern research suggests what many cannabis enthusiasts have speculated all along: ganja is good for you.

Cannabinoids & Neurogenesis


"Study turns pot wisdom on its head," pronounced the Globe and Mail in October. News wires throughout North America and the world touted similar headlines -- all of which were met with a monumental silence from federal officials and law enforcement. Why all the fuss? Researchers at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon found that the administration of synthetic cannabinoids in rats stimulated the proliferation of newborn neurons (nerve cells) in the hippocampus region of the brain and significantly reduced measures of anxiety and depression-like behavior. The results shocked researchers -- who noted that almost all other so-called "drugs of abuse," including alcohol and tobacco, decrease neurogenesis in adults -- and left the "pot kills brain cells" crowd with a platter of long-overdue egg on their faces.

While it would be premature to extrapolate the study's findings to humans, at a minimum, the data reinforce the notion that cannabinoids are unusually non-toxic to the brain and that even long-term use of marijuana likely represents little risk to brain function. The findings also offer further evidence that cannabinoids can play a role in the alleviation of depression and anxiety, and that cannabis-based medicines may one day offer a safer alternative to conventional anti-depressant pharmaceuticals such as Paxil and Prozac.

(Reference: Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic and depressant-like effects. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2005)

Cannabis & Neuroprotection


Not only has modern science refuted the notion that marijuana is neurotoxic, recent scientific discoveries have indicated that cannabinoids are, in fact, neuroprotective, particularly against alcohol-induced brain damage. In a recent preclinical study -- the irony of which is obvious to anyone who reads it -- researchers at the US National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) reported that the administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduced ethanol-induced cell death in the brain by up to 60 percent. "This study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant ... in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury," the study's authors wrote in the May 2005 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Alcohol poisoning is linked to hundreds of preventable deaths each year in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control, while cannabis cannot cause death by overdose.

Of course, many US neurologists have known about cannabis' neuroprotective prowess for years. NIMH scientists in 1998 first touted the ability of natural cannabinoids to stave off the brain-damaging effects of stroke and acute head trauma. Similar findings were then replicated by investigators in the Netherlands and Italy and, most recently, by a Japanese research in 2005. However, attempts to measure the potential neuroprotective effects of synthetic cannabinoid-derived medications in humans have so far been inconclusive.

(References: Comparison of cannabidiol, antioxidants and diuretics in reversing binge ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2005 | Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction. Stroke. 2005 | Post-ischemic treatment with cannabidiol prevents electroencephalographic flattening, hyperlocomotion and neuronal injury in gerbils. Neuroscience Letters. 2003 | Neuroprotection by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active compound in marijuana, against ouabain-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Journal of Neuroscience. 2001 | Cannabidiol and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1998)

Cannabinoids & Glioma


Of all cancers, few are as aggressive and deadly as glioma. Glioma tumors quickly invade healthy brain tissue and are typically unresponsive to surgery and standard medical treatments. One agent they do respond to is cannabis.

Writing in the August 2005 issue of the Journal of Neurooncology, investigators at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute reported that the administration of THC on human glioblastoma multiforme cell lines decreased the proliferation of malignant cells and induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) more rapidly than did the administration of the synthetic cannabis receptor agonist, WIN-55,212-2. Researchers also noted that THC selectively targeted malignant cells while ignoring healthy ones in a more profound manner than the synthetic alternative. Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme typically die within three months without therapy.

Previous research conducted in Italy has also demonstrated the capacity of CBD to inhibit the growth of glioma cells both in vitro (e.g., a petri dish) and in animals in a dose dependent manner. As a result, a Spanish research team is currently investigating whether the intracranial administration of cannabinoids can prolong the lives of patients diagnosed with inoperable brain cancer.

Most recently, a scientific analysis in the October issue of the journal Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry noted that, in addition to THC and CBD's brain cancer-fighting ability, studies have also shown cannabinoids to halt the progression of lung carcinoma, leukemia, skin carcinoma, colectoral cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer.

(References: Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce cell death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Journal of Neurooncology. 2005 | Cannabinoids and cancer. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2005 | Anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2003)

Cannabinoids & Neurodegeneration


Emerging evidence also indicates that cannabinoids may play a role in slowing the progression of certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's Disease). Recent animal studies have shown cannabinoids to delay disease progression and inhibit neurodegeneration in mouse models of ALS, Parkinson's, and MS. As a result, the Journal of Neurological Sciences recently pronounced, "There is accumulating evidence ... to support the hypothesis that the cannabinoid system can limit the neurodegenerative processes that drive progressive disease," and patient trials investigating whether the use of oral THC and cannabis extracts may slow the progression of MS are now underway in the United Kingdom.

(References: Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in CNS inflammatory disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2005. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: delayed disease progression in mice by treatment with a cannabinoid. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders. 2004 | Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2003)

Cannabis & Cognition


But what about claims of cannabis' damaging effect of cognition? A review of the scientific literature indicates that rumors regarding the "stoner stupid" stereotype are unfounded. According to clinical trial data published this past spring in the American Journal of Addictions, cannabis use -- including heavy, long-term use of the drug -- has, at most, only a negligible impact on cognition and memory. Researchers at Harvard Medical School performed magnetic resonance imaging on the brains of 22 long-term cannabis users (reporting a mean of 20,100 lifetime episodes of smoking) and 26 controls (subjects with no history of cannabis use). Imaging displayed "no significant differences" between heavy cannabis smokers compared to controls, the study found.

Previous trials tell a similar tale. An October 2004 study published in the journal Psychological Medicine examining the potential long-term residual effects of cannabis on cognition in monozygotic male twins reported "an absence of marked long-term residual effects of marijuana use on cognitive abilities." A 2003 meta-analysis published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society also "failed to reveal a substantial, systematic effect of long-term, regular cannabis consumption on the neurocognitive functioning of users who were not acutely intoxicated," and a 2002 clinical trial published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal determined, "Marijuana does not have a long-term negative impact on global intelligence."

Finally, a 2001 study published in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry found that long-term cannabis smokers who abstained from the drug for one week "showed virtually no significant differences from control subjects (those who had smoked marijuana less than 50 times in their lives) on a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests." Investigators further added, "Former heavy users, who had consumed little or no cannabis in the three months before testing, [also] showed no significant differences from control subjects on any of these tests on any of the testing days."

(References: Lack of hippocampal volume change in long-term heavy cannabis users. American Journal of Addictions. 2005 | Neuropsychological consequences of regular marijuana use: a twin study. Psychological Medicine. 2004 | Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2003 | Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2002 | Neuropsychological Performance in Long-term Cannabis Users. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2001)


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#22 hyphaenation

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Posted 08 May 2009 - 06:02 PM

Local related threads:

"Cannabis.Gives Cancer The Munchies"
http://mycotopia.net...nchies-too.html

Scientists have isolated and identified nine new cannabinoids that have antifungal, anibacterial, and a variety of other biological activities.
http://mycotopia.net...s-cannabis.html

#23 hyphaenation

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Posted 08 May 2009 - 06:24 PM

Endocannabinoid System ECS
*from below but now embedded*

[Direct Link]


Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 09:49 PM.


#24 hyphaenation

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Posted 08 May 2009 - 08:31 PM

[Direct Link]


Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 09:49 PM.


#25 hyphaenation

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 02:55 AM

Another short good video overview of your ECS.

http://www.medscape....warticle/545148


By the way there will be a test coming up on all this ... :amazed:

Its hard to believe all this stuff is just the overview , tip of the iceberg.

#26 hyphaenation

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 01:18 PM

Last video link takes you to a sign in page. Sorry about that.

You can view it by clicking the first link in the below google search without signing up.

http://www.google.ca...nG=Search&meta=

#27 hyphaenation

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 02:29 PM

Dr. Robert Melamede did a great job explaining endocannabinoids on Money TV of all places. Excellent conversation.

Exciting times.

Dr. Bob explains Cannabinoids on Money TV part 1

[Direct Link]



Cannabinoids on Money TV part 2

[Direct Link]


Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 09:50 PM.


#28 hyphaenation

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Posted 11 May 2009 - 08:11 PM

Brain's Cannabinoid System 'mellows' Seizures

http://www.medicalne...icles/49893.php

Main Category: Neurology / Neuroscience
Also Included In: Epilepsy
Article Date: 19 Aug 2006 - 12:00 PDT

The same brain machinery that responds to the active substance in marijuana provides a central "on-demand" protection against seizures, researchers have found. They said their discoveries suggest that the "endocannabinoid" system might constitute a prime target for drugs against seizures of epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases.

The findings were published by Beat Lutz and Giovanni Marsicano, of Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry and Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, and colleagues in the August 2006, issue of the journal Neuron, published by Cell Press.

The endocannabinoid system--which includes the receptors, the natural cannabinoid compounds that trigger them, as well as the machinery for regulating the process--was already known to modulate the excitation of neuronal transmission, noted the researchers. However, it had not been established that such modulation might affect neurons in the hippocampus responsible for the "excitotoxicity" that underlies the uncontrolled activity of seizures.

Thus, Lutz, Marsicano, and his colleagues used genetic techniques to pinpoint the role of the endocannabinoid system on these neurons and on seizure activity. They used mice as their animal model and induced seizures in these mice with the chemical kainic acid (KA).

In particular, they wanted to explore the role played by the endocannabinoid system in hippocampal neurons that are responsive to the neurotransmitter glutamine. These neurons are known to play a central role in seizure activity. The endocannabinoid regulatory system is also active in another type of neuron triggered by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Thus, the researchers conducted experiments in which they genetically knocked out the endocannabinoid receptor CB1 and analyzed the effects on seizure sensitivity. They found that, indeed, when they knocked out CB1 in glutamatergic, but not GABAergic neurons, the chemically induced seizures increased in the mice. In fact, their experiments all but ruled out the role of GABAergic neurons in the seizure-protection function, they concluded.

"Altogether, these results confirm that physiological endocannabinoid-dependent control of GABAergic transmission depends on intact CB1 signaling in GABAergic interneurons and suggest that the endocannabinoid system does not influence GABAergic transmission during the development of KA-induced seizures," they concluded. "Therefore, direct modulation of glutamatergic transmission by CB1 receptors expressed on cortical glutamatergic neurons appears to be the major mechanism of endocannabinoid-mediated protection against KA-induced seizures."

Furthermore, the researchers' experiments established that endocannabinoid receptors were also present in the same glutamatergic neurons in areas of the hippocampus known to be central to seizure generation. The researchers wrote that this finding "represents a novel step in understanding the progression of acute excitotoxic seizures and the development of epileptic states."

And significantly, when the researchers used a targeted virus to knock out the CB1 gene for the endocannabinoid receptor specifically in the glutamatergic neurons of the hippocampus, the mice also showed strong worsening of chemically induced seizures in comparison to mice still expressing CB1.

"Altogether, these observations support a hypothetical scenario in which acute KA-induced excitotoxic seizures would activate the endocannabinoid system in respect to its ability to inhibit only 'harmful' glutamatergic transmission, but not 'protective' GABAergic release," concluded Lutz, Marsicano, and colleagues.

"In conclusion, our study reveals a mechanism through which the endocannabinoid system is able to provide on-demand protection against acute behavioral seizures. CB1 expression on hippocampal glutamatergic circuits accounts for this protection and might represent a suitable target for the treatment of neurological disorders associated with excessive neuronal excitation," they wrote.

----------------------------
Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release.



#29 5-hydroxytryptamine

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Posted 11 May 2009 - 09:27 PM

quote "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects"

I can testify to that for sure. half my family is on SSRIs but i refuse. why put faith in experimental chemicals when nature provides??

thanks so much for posting this info. it will take some time to wade through this thread.

#30 hyphaenation

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Posted 05 December 2009 - 01:05 PM

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Medical -Cannabis- News

There seems to be a new study or discovery about Cannabis almost every day. The media is full of good news stories about Cannabis and I thought it would be good to share some of this info here.

Rather than make a new thread for every story that pops up about Cannabis medicine , I thought they could be collected in one thread for easy reading.

There's already quite a few of these links here in the grassroots section so if your going to post a Cannabis-related good news story check and see if its already posted by searching.

Feel free to add any links/info you've found about medical Cannabis discoveries. Also please feel free to make comments and discuss.

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#31 hyphaenation

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Posted 05 December 2009 - 01:12 PM

_Cannabis_ extracts may ease symptoms of multiple sclerosis

http://latimesblogs....-sclerosis.html

If you've been following the medical marijuana debate, you may be interested in a new review of studies on the effects of cannabis extracts on the spasticity (involuntary muscle contractions) experienced by people with multiple sclerosis. The studies that were reviewed specifically tested extracts containing two compounds derived from Cannabis sativa, used in combination. One was THC -- the main active ingredient that gives the characteristic "high." The other was cannabidiol, or CBD, which doesn't give the same high and may act to lower levels of THC in the brain. (The reasoning, therefore, is that combining the two would give the anti-spastic effect in muscles while not fogging the brain.)

In an article published in the journal BMC Neurology, Shaheen E. Lakhan and Marie Rowland of the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation in Los Angeles examined six randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Though results from individual studies weren't exactly the same, they did show that the extracts were generally well-tolerated, compared with placebo, though doses had sometimes to be adjusted.

The authors also noted a "trend" in spasticity reduction and improvement in mobility -- in objective assessments of spasticity, they did not see statistically significant differences, but in subjective measures -- i.e. what the patient reported -- they did. "More study needed," the authors conclude -- and also urge more study on the anti-inflammatory properties of the compounds.

BMC Neurology is one of those journals that nicely allow free access once the article's been published. So you can read the whole study here.
And because medical marijuana has been much in the news, here are some other articles you might want to look at:

-- A 2008 look at medical marijuana science in the L.A. Times Health section by freelancer Jill U. Adams;

-- Last month, the American Medical Assn. urged the government to reclassify marijuana from that of a dangerous drug with no medical use, by Times writer John Hoeffel;

-- And, of course, the ongoing battle about what constitutes a legal way to sell pot: An article from earlier this week by Hoeffel reports that "a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge, concluding that state law does not allow medical marijuana to be sold, proposed an injunction Tuesday that would order an Eagle Rock dispensary to cease selling it."

-- Rosie Mestel


------------------------------
_Cannabis_ Extracts May Ease MS Spasticity

http://www.medpageto...Neurology/17328

Multiple sclerosis patients with spasticity may feel better after taking whole plant extracts of cannabis, researchers said, but a review of six studies showed that the drug had no significant effect on objective measurements of patients' condition.

The extracts did appear to be well tolerated, despite some adverse events, according to an online report in BMC Neurology by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, and Marie Rowland, both of the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation, a nonprofit organization in Los Angeles.

Earlier research had indicated that cannabis might be an effective treatment for the spasticity associated with MS, Lakhan and Rowland wrote in the journal.

But most such studies focused on one component of the plant: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which also has psychotropic properties.
Recently, researchers have combined THC and another extract, cannabidiol (CBD), hoping to obtain an antispastic effect without intoxication, the researchers wrote. The CBD appears to block the entry of THC to the brain, reducing psychotropic effects.

So Lakhan and Rowland conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1999 and April 2009, looking for randomized, placebo-controlled trials in which a combination THC and CBD extract was tested.
All told, they found six, published between 2002 and 2007, involving a total of 481 patients with MS. Three used a crossover design and three a parallel design in which a total of 339 patients were administered a placebo only.

All six trials reported changes on the Ashworth scale, which measures spasticity. Other measures in some or all studies included a visual analog scale, walk time, the Rivermead Mobility Index which measures disability related to mobility, and self-reported ratings of spasm frequency or severity.

Overall, five studies concluded that the extracts may decrease spasticity and improve mobility in patients with MS and one reported no reduction in spasticity, the researchers reported in the journal.

But only one study, of 50 patients assessed with the Ashworth scale, showed significant improvement, while the other five reported little to no improvement in their versions of the Ashworth scale.

Lakhan and Rowland noted in the journal that "the Ashworth scale is subject to individual assessor evaluation, and there may have been variation between studies in the modification of scale measures."
Three studies reported visual analog scales, two of which found a significant improvement, they reported.

Two studies reported improved walk time results, but the changes were not significant in one, and significance was not reported in the other.

Three studies, including a total of 275 patients, reported improvements in the Rivermead Mobility Index, but only one reached significance.

Finally, Lakhan and Rowland reported, five studies reported significant improvements in spasticity as subjectively rated by patients with MS, while one reported deterioration.

The National Multiple Sclerosis Society has said it is "clear that cannabinoids have potential both for the management of MS symptoms such as pain and spasticity, as well as for neuroprotection."

But the society doesn't recommend medical marijuana because there's no clearly demonstrated benefit, compared with existing treatments. As well, the society said on its Web site, "issues of side effects, systemic effects, and long-term effects are not yet clear."

The authors noted several limitations including the fact that this review did not include unpublished data and "the possibility that other clinical reports using whole plant cannabis extracts may have been appropriate for review, but were not included without report of specific methodology."


#32 hyphaenation

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Posted 05 December 2009 - 01:24 PM

Answer to booze problems may lie in cannabis

http://timesofindia....how/5288024.cms

ANI1 December 2009, 03:24pm IST

Putting cannabis in place of more harmful drugs may help in winning the fight against substance abuse, say researchers.

Amanda Reiman, University of California, Berkeley, USA, carried out the study at Berkeley Patient’s Group, and found that 40 per cent of the 350 cannabis users quizzed resorted to the drug to control their alcohol cravings.

The poll further discovered that 66 users consumed cannabis as a replacement for prescription drugs and 26 per cent for other, more potent, illegal drugs.

Amanda said: "Substituting cannabis for alcohol has been described as a radical alcohol treatment protocol. This approach could be used to address heavy alcohol use in the British Isles - people might substitute cannabis, a potentially safer drug than alcohol with less negative side-effects, if it were socially acceptable and available".

She added: "This brings up two important points. First, self-determination, the right of an individual to decide which treatment or substance is most effective and least harmful for them.

“Secondly, the recognition that substitution might be a viable alternative to abstinence for those who can’t or won’t completely stop using psychoactive substances".

The study was published in BioMed Central ’ open access Harm Reduction Journal.

-------------------------------

Study: Marijuana May Protect Against Brain Damage From Binge Drinking

http://blog.mpp.org/...nking/08212009/

A study just published online by the journal Neurotoxicology and Teratology suggests that marijuana may protect the brain from some of the damage caused by binge drinking.
The study, by researchers at the University of California San Diego, used a type of high-tech scan called diffusion tensor imaging to compare microscopic changes in brain white matter. The subjects were students aged 16-to-19, divided into three groups: binge drinkers (defined as having five or more drinks at one sitting for boys or four or more for girls), binge drinkers who also smoked marijuana, and a control group who had very little or no experience with either alcohol or drugs.


As expected, the binge-drinking-only group showed evidence of white matter damage in eight regions examined, as demonstrated by lower fractional anisotropy (FA) scores. But in a finding the researchers described as “unexpected,” the binge-drinking/marijuana group had lower FA scores than the controls in only three of the eight regions, and in seven regions the binge-drinking/marijuana group had higher scores – indicating less damage – than the binge drinkers who didn’t use marijuana (unfortunately, not all of these stats are in the summary linked above; access to the full article requires payment).
Brain white matter tracts were “more coherent in adolescents who binge drink and use marijuana than in adolescents who report only binge drinking,” the researchers wrote. “It is possible that marijuana may have some neuroprotective properties in mitigating alcohol-related oxidative stress or excitotoxic cell death.” The scientists noted that such protection has already been shown in lab and animal studies.


Indeed, the U.S. government has a patent on cannabinoids as neuroprotectants. Yes, the same government that wants you to believe that marijuana will rot your brain knows that its active components protect brain and nerve cells from many kinds of damage.


In a statement issued by MPP today, director of state campaigns Steve Fox said, “This study suggests that not only is marijuana safer than alcohol, it may actually protect against some of the damage that booze causes. It’s far better for teens not to drink or smoke marijuana, but our nation’s leaders send a dangerous message by defending laws that encourage the use of alcohol over marijuana.”
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#33 hyphaenation

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Posted 05 December 2009 - 01:54 PM

Body's Own 'Cannabis (Marijuana)' Is Good For The Skin, Scientists Find

http://www.scienceda...80702160944.htm

ScienceDaily (July 3, 2008) — Scientists from Hungary, Germany and the U.K. have discovered that our own body not only makes chemical compounds similar to the active ingredient in marijuana (THC), but these play an important part in maintaining healthy skin.

This finding on "endocannabinoids" just published online in, and scheduled for the October 2008 print issue of, The FASEB Journal could lead to new drugs that treat skin conditions ranging from acne to dry skin, and even skin-related tumors.


"Our preclinical data encourage one to explore whether endocannabinoid system-acting agents can be exploited in the management of common skin disorders," said Tamás Biró, MD, PhD, a senior scientist involved in the research. "It is also suggested that these agents can be efficiently applied locally to the skin in the form of a cream."


Biró and colleagues came to this conclusion by treating cell cultures from human sebaceous glands (the glands that make the oil on our skin) with various concentrations of endocannabinoids (substances produced by the body that are similar to the active ingredient in marijuana).


Then they measured the production of lipids (fat cells, such as those in skin oil), cell survival and death, and changes in gene expression and compared these outcomes to those in an untreated control group.


"This research shows that we may have something in common with the marijuana plant," said Gerald Weissmann, MD. "Just as THC is believed to protect the marijuana plants from pathogens, our own cannabinoids may be necessary for us to maintain healthy skin and to protect us from pathogens ."

Related:


For more info on your bodies own Cannabis system please see:

http://mycotopia.net...endocannabinoid

#34 hyphaenation

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Posted 05 December 2009 - 03:31 PM

A similar thread I forgot I made. :hookah:

more news
http://mycotopia.net...nabis-news.html

Some recent Cannabis- news ...

Cannabis- chemicals may help fight prostate cancer

http://www.ottawacit....592/story.html


Doubt cast on cannabis- , schizophrenia link

http://www.cbc.ca/he....zophrenia.html


Cannabis-: Potential treatment for skin disorders?

http://www.examiner.....skin-disorders


Marijuana Compounds May Offset Alcohol-Induced Toxicity, Study Says

http://www.enewspf.c....temid=88890249


New study finds that marijuana smokers have a lower risk of head and neck cancers.

http://www.alternet.....events_cancer/


Researchers Tackle MRSA Using Cannabis- Extracts

http://current.com/i....s-extracts.htm

Brain's Cannabinoid System 'mellows' Seizures

http://www.medicalne...icles/49893.php

#35 hyphaenation

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Posted 06 December 2009 - 12:34 PM

New biologically active compounds from cannabis

http://mycotopia.net...s-cannabis.html

Forbes Article About How THC Kills Brain Cancer Cells


http://mycotopia.net...ncer-cells.html

Study turns pot wisdom on head


http://mycotopia.net...isdom-head.html

#36 hyphaenation

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Posted 06 December 2009 - 12:40 PM

Also of interest is this thread on your bodies Endocannabinoid system ...

http://mycotopia.net...evelations.html

Make sure to check out the video lecture halfway down.

http://mycotopia.net...html#post705769

#37 hyphaenation

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Posted 06 December 2009 - 08:35 PM

.Cannabis. Use, Effect And Potential Therapy For Alzheimer's, MS and Parkinson's

http://www.scienceda...71014163644.htm

ScienceDaily (Oct. 15, 2007) — Cannabis (marijuana) is the most widely produced plant-based illicit drug worldwide and the illegal drug most frequently used in Europe. Its use increased in almost all EU countries during the 1990s, in particular among young people, including school students. Cannabis use is highest among 15- to 24-year-olds, with lifetime prevalence ranging for most countries from 20--40% (EMCDDA 2006).

Recently there has been a new surge in the level of concern about potential social and health outcomes of cannabis use, although the available evidence still does not provide a clear-cut understanding of the issues. Intensive cannabis use is correlated with non-drug-specific mental problems, but the question of co-morbidity is intertwined with the questions of cause and effect (EMCDDA 2006). Prevention is of importance in adolescents, which is underlined by evidence that early-onset cannabis-users (pre- to mid-adolescence) have a significantly higher risk of developing drug problems, including dependence (Von Sydow et al., 2002; Chen et al., 2005).
The illegal status and wide-spread use of cannabis made basic and clinical cannabis research difficult in the past decades; on the other hand, it has stimulated efforts to identify the psychoactive constituents of cannabis. As a consequence, the endocannabinoid system was discovered, which was shown to be involved in most physiological systems -- the nervous, the cardiovascular, the reproductive, the immune system, to mention a few.
One of the main roles of endocannabinoids is neuroprotection, but over the last decade they have been found to affect a long list of processes, from anxiety, depression, cancer development, vasodilatation to bone formation and even pregnancy (Panikashvili et al., 2001; Pachter et al., 2006).
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are supposed to represent a medicinal treasure trove which waits to be discovered.
Raphael Mechoulam will tell the discovery story of the endocannabinoid system. His research has not only helped us to advance our understanding of cannabis use and its effects, but has also made key contributions with regard to understanding "neuroprotection," and has opened the door for the development of new drugs.


Endocannabinoid system

In the 1960s the constituent of the cannabis plant was discovered -- named tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC -- which causes the 'high' produced by it (Gaoni & Mechoulam, 1964). Thousands of publications have since appeared on THC. Today it is even used as a therapeutic drug against nausea and for enhancing appetite, and, surprisingly, has not become an illicit drug -- apparently cannabis users prefer the plant-based marijuana and hashish.
Two decades later it was found that THC binds to specific receptors in the brain and the periphery and this interaction initiates a cascade of biological processes leading to the well known marijuana effects. It was assumed that a cannabinoid receptor is not formed for the sake of a plant constituent (that by a strange quirk of nature binds to it), but for endogenous brain constituents and that these putative 'signaling' constituents together with the cannabinoid receptors are part of a new biochemical system in the human body, which may affect various physiological actions.

In trying to identify these unknown putative signaling molecules, our research group in the 1990s was successful in isolating 2 such endogenous 'cannabinoid' components -- one from the brain, named anandamide (from the word ´ananda, meaning ´supreme joy´ in Sanscrit), and another one from the intestines named 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) (Devane et al., 1992; Mechoulam et al., 1995).



Neuroprotection

The major endocannabinoid (2-AG) has been identified both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Stressful stimuli -- traumatic brain injury (TBI) for example -- enhance brain 2-AG levels in mice. 2-AG, both of endogenous and exogenous origin, has been shown to be neuroprotective in closed head injury, ischemia and excitotoxicity in mice. These effects may derive from the ability of cannabinoids to act through a variety of biochemical mechanisms. 2-AG also helps repair the blood brain barrier after TBI.

The endocannabinoids act via specific cannabinoid receptors, of which the CB1 receptors are most abundant in the central nervous system. Mice whose CB1 receptors are knocked out display slower functional recovery after TBI and do not respond to treatment with 2-AG. Over the last few years several groups have noted that CB2 receptors are also formed in the brain, particularly as a reaction to numerous neurological diseases, and are apparently activated by the endocannabinoids as a protective mechanism.
Through evolution the mammalian body has developed various systems to guard against damage that may be caused by external attacks. Thus, it has an immune system, whose main role is to protect against protein attacks (microbes, parasites for example) and to reduce the damage caused by them. Analogous biological protective systems have also been developed against non-protein attacks, although they are much less well known than the immune system. Over the last few years the research group of Esther Shohami in collaboration with our group showed that the endocannabinoid system, through various biological routes, lowers the damage caused by brain trauma. Thus, it helps to attenuate the brain edema and the neurological injuries caused by it (Panikashvili et al., 2001; Panikashvili et al., 2006).


Clinical importance

Furthermore it is assumed that the endocannabinoid system may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, a neuropsychiatric syndrome induced by fulminant hepatic failure. Indeed in an animal model the brain levels of 2-AG were found to be elevated. Administration of 2-AG improved a neurological score, activity and cognitive function (Avraham et al., 2006). Activation of the CB2 receptor by a selective agonist also improved the neurological score. The authors concluded that the endocannabinoid system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

Modulation of this system either by exogenous agonists specific for the CB2 receptors or possibly also by antagonists to the CB1 receptors may have therapeutic potential. The endocannabinoid system generally is involved in the protective reaction of the mammalian body to a long list of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Thus, there is hope for novel therapeutic opportunities.
Numerous additional endocannabinoids -- especially various fatty acid ethanolamides and glycerol esters -- are known today and regarded as members of a large ´endocannabinoid family´. Endogenous cannabinoids, the cannabinoid receptors and various enzymes that are involved in their syntheses and degradations comprise the endocannabinoid system.
The endocannabinoid system acts as a guardian against various attacks on the mammalian body.
Conclusion
The above described research concerning the endocannabinoid-system is of importance in both basic science and in therapeutics:

  • The discovery of the cannabis plant active constituent has helped advance our understanding of cannabis use and its effects.
  • The discovery of the endocannabinoids has been of central importance in establishing the existence of a new biochemical system and its physiological roles -- in particular in neuroprotection.
  • These discoveries have opened the door for the development of novel types of drugs, such as THC for the treatment of nausea and for enhancing appetite in cachectic patients.
  • The endocannabinoid system is involved in the protective reaction of the mammalian body to a long list of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease which raises hope for novel therapeutic opportunities for these diseases.
References
Avraham Y, Israeli E, Gabbay E, et al. Endocannabinoids affect neurological and cognitive function in thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy in mice. Neurobiology of Disease 2006;21:237-245
Chen CY, O´Brien MS, Anthony JC. Who becomes cannabis dependent soon after onset of use" Epidemiological evidence from the United States: 2000-2001. Drug and alcohol dependence 2005;79:11-22
Devane WA, Hanus L, Breuer A, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science 1992;258:1946-1949
[EMCDDA 2006] European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. The state of the drugs problem in Europe. Annual Report 2006 (http://www.emcdda.europa.eu)
Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Amer Chem Soc 1964;86:1646-1647
Journal Interview 85: Conversation with Raphael Mechoulam. Addiction 2007;102:887-893
Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, et al. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:83-90
Mechoulam R, Panikashvili D, Shohami E. Cannabinoids and brain injury. Trends Mol Med 2002;8:58-61
Pachter P, Batkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev 2006;58:389-462
Panikashvili D, Simeonidou C, Ben-Shabat S, et al. An endogenous cannabinoid (2-AG) is neuroprotective after brain injury. Nature 2001;413:527-531
Panikashvili D, Shein NA, Mechoulam R, et al. The endocannabinoid 2-AG protects the blood brain barrier after closed head injury and inhibits mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Neurobiol Disease 2006;22:257-264
Von Sydow K, Lieb R, Pfister H, et al. What predicts incident use of cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence" A 4-year prospective examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Drug and alcohol dependence 2002;68:49-64

#38 hyphaenation

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Posted 06 December 2009 - 08:38 PM

Brain 'cannabis' Parkinson's hope

http://news.bbc.co.u...lth/6338173.stm

Boosting levels of the brain's natural cannabis-like chemicals could improve the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a US study suggests.

Mice with a similar condition could move normally within 15 minutes of having a cocktail including a compound which increases endocannabinoid levels.
But the scientists, writing in Nature, warned smoking cannabis would not have the same effect.

UK experts said the study increased understanding of Parkinson's.

Around one in 500 people in the UK have the disease.
It is a progressive, degenerative, neurological condition for which there is currently no cure.
Sufferers find increasing difficulty in moving their arms and legs. They develop tremors and facial tics, and gradually become more and more immobile.
Treatment combination
The researchers, from Stanford University Medical Center in California, focused on an area of the brain called the striatum which has already been linked to Parkinson's.
The activity of nerve cells in the striatum relies on the chemical dopamine.
If there is too little dopamine in that area, Parkinson's disease can develop.
They used mice genetically modified to have a condition like Parkinson's and marked certain cells with a fluorescent protein that glowed vivid green under a microscope.
Their study indicated that two types of cells formed a "push-pull system" in the brain - one is thought to be involved in activating motion, while the other is likely to stop unwanted movement.
If there is too little dopamine, it is thought that the cells which restrict motion become dominant, making it harder for a person to move.
An existing drug which boosts dopamine levels led to a small improvement in the animals' condition.
But it was only when they added an experimental drug designed to slow the breakdown of endocannabinoids, being developed by Californian firm Kadmus Pharmaceuticals, that the mice showed a dramatic improvement.
The mice went from being unable to move, to moving freely in 15 minutes.
'Greater insight'
Dr Robert Malenka, who led the study, said: "They were basically normal.
"This points to a potentially new kind of therapy for Parkinson's disease."
But he added: "It is a long, long way to go before this will be tested in humans, but nonetheless, we have identified a new way of potentially manipulating the circuits that are malfunctioning in this disease."
And he stressed that the study found the use of specific chemicals made the difference.
"That is a really important difference, and it is why we think our manipulation of the chemicals is really different from smoking marijuana."
Kieran Breen, director of research and development at the UK's Parkinson's Disease Society, said: "The study provides us with a greater insight into how the nerve cells in the area of the brain affected in Parkinson's are connected and how they communicate with one another.
"A greater understanding of this will provide information about the changes that occur when nerve cells die and may ultimately lead to the identification of new targets in the cell at which drugs can act to treat the symptoms of the condition."

#39 hyphaenation

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Posted 12 December 2009 - 06:31 PM

Dr. Bob

 

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Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic
Robert Melamede

http://www.harmreduc.../content/2/1/21


Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 10:17 PM.


#40 hyphaenation

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Posted 17 December 2009 - 04:28 AM

What is high ?


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Edited by hyphaenation, 02 January 2014 - 09:54 PM.





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