Used by the US DOJ when identifying substances
After reading Prism's ID thread, I thought I'd post this great list of reagents you can easily make at home. The color charts for the drugs, and more information, can be found in the attached pdf. Cheers!
A.1 Cobalt Thiocyanate
Dissolve 2.0 g of cobalt (II) thiocyanate in 100 mL of distilled water.
A.2 Dille-Koppanyi Reagent, Modified
Solution A: Dissolve 0.1 g of cobalt (II) acetate dihydrate in 100 mL of methanol. Add 0.2 mL of glacial acetic acid and mix.
Solution B: Add 5 mL of isopropylamine to 95 mL of methanol.
Procedure: Add 2 volumes of solution A to the drug, followed by 1 volume of solution B.
A.3 Duquenois-Levine Reagent, Modified
Solution A: Add 2.5 mL of acetaldehyde and 2.0 g of vanillin to 100 mL of 95 percent ethanol.
Solution B: Concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Solution C: Chloroform.
Procedure: Add 1 volume of solution A to the drug and shake for 1 min. Then add 1 volume of solution B. Agitate gently, and determine the color produced. Add 3 volumes of solution C and note whether the color is extracted from the mixture to A and B.
A.4 Mandelin Reagent
Dissolve 1.0 g of ammonium vanadate in 100 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid.
A.5 Marquis Reagent
Carefully add 100 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid to 5 mL of 40 percent
formaldehyde (v:v, formaldehyde:water).
A.6 Nitric Acid
Concentrated nitric acid.
A.7 Para-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (p-DMAB)
Add 2.0 g of p-DMAB to 50 mL of 95 percent ethanol and 50 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid.
A.8 Ferric Chloride
Dissolve 2.0 g of anhydrous ferric chloride or 3.3 g of ferric chloride hexahydrate in 100 mL of distilled water.
A.9 Froede Reagent
Dissolve 0.5 g of molybdic acid or sodium molybate in 100 mL of hot concentrated sulfuric acid.
A.10 Mecke Reagent
Dissolve 1.0 g of selenious acid in 100 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid.
A.11 Zwikker Reagent
Solution A: Dissolve 0.5 g of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate in 100 mL of distilled water.
Solution B: Add 5 mL of pyridine to 95 mL of chloroform.
Procedure: Add 1 volume of solution A to the drug, followed by 1 volume of
A.12 Simon’s Reagent
Solution A: Dissolve 1 g of sodium nitroprusside in 50 mL of distilled water and add2 mL of acetaldehyde to the solution with thorough mixing.
Solution B: 2 percent sodium carbonate in distilled water.
Procedure: Add 1 volume of solution A to the drug, followed by 2 volumes of solution B.