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The Greatest Mushroom Library (Cultivation) Books Part Three

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#1 Man of Knowledge

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Posted 24 July 2010 - 05:00 PM

Okay the text is long but not boring. Bare with me while I post this into four replies then I will come back and add the photos.

Thank you

Pictorial of Psilocybian Mushroom Cultivation

In Memory of Roger Heim (1900-1979), Steven H. Pollock (1946-1979) and Terence McKenna (1946-2000).

When I first wrote “Mushroom Pioneers,” it was so that others would be able have a book to read and learn about the role some fascinating well renown individuals played in bringing to the attention to the world, their discoveries and interests on teaching us what it was they learned about such sacred fungi and why they decided to share this knowledge about these wondrous mushrooms with all of us here today who share their common interest and have a desire to learn all we can about their place in the field of ethnomycology and their reason for being here in this planet in the middle of the universe.

"Use of psilocybian mushrooms constituted the fourth great wave of entheogenic awareness and distribution (after iffy plants like the Daturas, along with marijuana; the wave created by peyote and mescaline; and then that resulting exfoliation of LSD throughout a significant population in the 1960's and beyond).

These wondrous mushrooms are notable in that they, a) are easily identifiable, b) spring up quite naturally across many segments of both the Old and New Worlds, and c) are gentle in action (in contrast to the "coercive" nature of other major psychedelics, which tend to emphasize "ego-death," for instance).

Here John W. Allen describes the rather long and strangely convoluted incursion of mind-altering mushrooms via historical vignettes, by snapshots of the principle players, and by the most extensive annotated bibliography of relevant papers and books…that brings this entire field of knowledge into the 21st century.
J. W.., mycologist extraordinaire, I salute you!
Peter Stafford, author of The Psychedelic Encyclopedia, Magic Mushrooms, Psychedelic Baby Reaches Puberty and Magic Grams.

1.) Mushroom Pioneers is a fascinating account of several individuals who were pivotal in the investigation of psychotropic mushrooms and the introduction of these phenomena into Western medicine and science. John W. Allen has documented an important historical development in this book, and provides his readers with a litany of men and women who rescued an ancient tradition from obscurity.
Stanley Krippner, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Saybrook Graduate School; co-editor Varieties of Anomalous Experience.

2.) John W. Allen, the mushroom man, is our celestial tour guide in a school without walls. Rogue scholar, adventurer and gentleman forager, his works surrounding psychedelic mushrooms are "must reads and always a treat." Allen's books are essential
Thomas Lyttle, editor "Psychedelic Monographs and Essays," and "Psychedelics Reimagined."

As my knowledge about psilocybian mushrooms began to grow after my first trips on liberty caps, my studies came to encompass many various and sundry fields spaced shelves apart or interspersed at intervals between shelves, in separate buildings, and even in numerous libraries on various campuses throughout the country and even in other regions of the world not found in North America. I digested every thing I could read related to the various fields tangential to the study of sacred fungi.

This also was the beginning of my relationship with the many scholars who had brought to the world's attention the very existence of the mushrooms. Eventually, I would come to call some of these intrepid psilophores my friends. Among this first wave I include: Richard Evans Schultes (the greatest ethnobotanist of this century), R. Gordon Wasson (the founder of ethnomycology), Albert Hofmann (the discoverer of LSD), Timothy Leary, (who first reported on the ludible use of psychoactive mushrooms to the public in his memoirs). Those intrepid scholars also included such prominent scientists as, mycologists Gastón Guzmán (the Mexican authority on the taxonomy of these hallucinogenic mushrooms), Rolf Singer, Alexander H. Smith, Roy Watling, and others. This first wave might include the late Timothy Leary, György Miklos-Ola'h, and the late French mycologist Roger Heim. And of course the “Father of Alternate Medicines,” Dr. Andrew Weil.

The second wave consisted of a younger generation that emerged from the psychedelic sixties and included ethnopharmacognost Jonathan Ott, mushroom-cultivator Paul Stamets, mycophiles such as Gary Lincoff, Steven H. Pollock, Gary Menser, Bob Harris, Peter Stafford and publisher David Tatelman of Homestead Book Company (distributor of mushroom books and growing kits).

The third wave consists of the same generation who somewhat later embarked on this path, and includes such prominent researches as Jochen Gartz, Giorgio Samorini, Antonio Bianchi, Francesco Festi, Tjakko Stijve, Mark D. Merlin, Christian Rätsch, Roger Liggenstorfer, Dennis and Terence McKenna, Rich Gee, Arno Adelaars, Karl L. R. Jansen, Hans van den Hurk, Benjamin Thomas, Gianluca Toro, Jan Borovicka and others too numerous to mention (the many chemists, psychologists, shamanic healers, philosophers and poets). Last but not least, in the fullness of time, I now include myself in this third wave.

Jonathan Ott Amsterdam, 1998.

Jonathan Ott wrote of Allen and Gartz’ work in their CD-ROM, “Psilocybian Mushroom Cultivation: A Brief History.”

R. Gordon Wasson and Jonathan Ott: 1978 San Francisco

Jonathan Ott's Forward To Psilocybian Mushroom Cultivation: A Brief History by
John W. Allen and Jochen Gartz.

"John Allen and Jochen Gartz have done it again! The leading experts on counterculture history and cultivation of psilocybian mushrooms here offer a concise, yet comprehensive, survey of the laboratory and black-market cultivation of teonanácatl, the fabled "wondrous mushrooms", archaic shamanic use of which was rediscovered in Mesoamérica by R. Gordon Wasson in 1955, leading to the present-day worldwide market in these entheogenic mushrooms. Although they remain [albeit temporarily] items of black-market commerce in these United States, they are presently sold legally and openly in several countries, notably Holland [Now illegal], The United Kingdom [now illegal], and Japan [now illegal] and Christiana, Denmark [also now illegal]. Indeed, despite the most vigorous prosecutorial efforts, the psilocybian mushrooms are not uniformly illegal even in the Evil Empire of the Imperialistic Government on the Potomac, inasmuch as at least one State Supreme Court [Florida's] has ruled that psilocybian mushrooms are not equivalent to the Schedule I [controlled] drugs psilocybine and psilocine, and hence are not proscribed by existing state or federal laws. Meanwhile, apart from Nature's bounty, human ingenuity has made the mushrooms more readily available in some states even than the far more popular marijuana. Herein is the intriguing story of how that came to pass."

Jonathan Ott, Pharmacophilia, v.o.f. Amsterdam, Nederland, 1998.

This book can be viewed at:
Erowid and Mushroom John's Tales of the Shroom websites. With 300 full color photographs of some of the most beautiful grown cubes and other species.

The commercial home cultivation of psilocybin containing mushrooms by amateur entrepreneurs is a recent trend that has developed into an international pastime. Not only are these mushrooms grown clandestinely and illicitly by thousands of novice cultivators, they have also attracted the attention of collectors of wild-edible mushrooms, some of whom are interested in experiencing the visions of ecstasy which the mushrooms are known to produce The ludibund use of psilocybian mushrooms in non-traditional settings for recreational [now the term ludible is applied rather than recreational] purposes is popular throughout the world and its cultivational history will be discussed as we follow the ascent of the wide spread recreational use of psilocybian mushrooms which led to the current popular trend in cultivation.

Interest in the mind-manifesting properties of psilocybin mushrooms has, over the past half century, evolved into an organized network of mycophiles--many of whom are primarily interested in the use and propagation of entheogenic mushroom species; particularly those species of mushrooms which contain the indole alkaloids psilocin and psilocybin. This interest soon grew, spreading like a domino effect, and vastly expanding on a global scale transcending across the world; obviously this was the direct result of the ethnomycological and/or popular writings of such pioneers as Harvard ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes (1939, 1940); Swiss Chemist Albert Hofmann (1980) and together, Richard Evans Schultes and Albert Hofmann (1973, 1979); ethnomycologists R. Gordon and Valentina P. Wasson (1957); V. P. Wasson (1957b); Ott and Bigwood (1978); noted French mycologist Roger Heim and R. Gordon Wasson (1958a); mycologists Rolf Singer and Alexander H. Smith (1958), Gastón Guzmán (1983; 1990); Gyorgy-Miklos Ola'h (1970); popular authors such as John Lincoln (1967); Jeremy Sandford (1973); Carlos Castaneda (1968) and Tom Robbins (1974); psilocybin entrepreneur Steven H. Pollock (1974, 1976, 1977-78); ethnobotanist Jonathan Ott (1976, 1978, 1993) and the natural mind writings of health guru Dr. Andrew Weil (1975a, 1975b, 1977, 1980).

As we have learned, it was in 1957 that New York banker and Wall Street financier, R. Gordon Wasson published a paper in the May 13th, 1957 issue of Henry and Clare Booth Luce’s Life Magazin.

Life Magazine, May 13th, 1957

This became possible because the editors and owners of Life were, as both publishers and aficionados, who endorsed the legality of marijuana and other mind-altering drugs such as LSD, peyote and DMT, much to the dismay and public outrage of the FBI’s head hauncho, J. Edgar Hoover. The public announcement of the discovery of a magic mushroom cult in Oaxaca and other States in Mexico by the Wasson’s (1957) brought a new era of discovery to millions of readers of Life. In this issue of Life Magazine, Roger Heim identified 7 primary species of magic mushrooms used by the Mazatec by displayed these mushrooms by identifying them to the readers of Life Magazine though his brilliant water-colored renditions of the newly 7-discovered species. Within 2-years, scholars and other mycologists had identified at least a dozen species of psilocybian fungi known from Mexico (Heim & Wasson 1958a; Singer & Smith, 1958.) In 1983, Guzmán reported that Indians in Mesoamerica currently used more than two-dozen species and subspecies. Most of those sacred species belong to the genus Psilocybe, however, at the time, some researchers, mistakenly identified some species of Panaeolus and one Conocybe as possibly being used in cultic ceremonies amongst the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca (Schultes & Hofmann 1973, 1979, see Allen, 1997).

Presently, Guzman reports that there are more than 50 species of Psilocybe from Mexico and that more than 3-dozen species of the genus Psilocybe are known to be used ritualistically by the indigenous peoples of Oaxaca. Today it is known that approximately 38 species are used ceremoniously and over 50 are species of Psilocybe and no Panaeolus species were ever used, as previously reported by many scholars and mycologists.

It was a single species of the genus Panaeolus that the scholars referred to as Teonanácatl, the mushroom species that became known in mycological literature as the “Flesh of the Gods” that caused errors of the identification of the non-active species, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, and later in the 2000s Richard Evans Schultes in a private communication to me informed me that that species was not the actual "teonanácatl" mushroom of the Aztec Empire.

The name "teonanácatl" was probably used by the Aztecs to describe several species of mushrooms that they used ceremonially, and most likely did not apply to one particular species. Today in contemporary Mexico, no shaman, curandera, brujo, sabio nor other native healer who employs the sacred mushrooms have been known to refer to them as "teonanácatl."

Attention is then focused on the technology of psilocybian mushroom cultivation. This trend first gained national attention through the publication of several mushroom growing manuals which described newly-developed growing-techniques, and some magazines that advertised the necessary tools and growing-supplies needed for the in vitro cultivation of psilocybian fungi.

The most common species of hallucinogenic mushrooms grown in vitro are 1) Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer and Psilocybe subcubensis Guzmán; two macroscopically indistinguishable species, both grown primarily for their psychotropic effects and alteration of consciousness rather than as a source of food. This includes such hybrid strains of Psilocybe cubensis from Florida, the Amazon, Malaysia, India, Thailand, Cambodia, Africa and the Philippines (see Fig. 1);

Fig. 1. Psilocybe cubensis (South African Transkei)

and or Fig. 2. Psilocybe subcubensis: Ban Hua Thanon.

and 2) Copelandia cyanescens from Hawaiian and or Thai strains (Fig. 3)

the cultivation of sclerotia from Psilocybe tampanensis and Psilocybe mexicana (see Fig. 4).

Although numbers 1, 2 and 3 were once mass-produced legally in Amsterdam (until December of 2008), and other locations throughout the Netherlands, number 1 is known to be grown illicitly throughout much of the world). And currently the sclerotia (Fig. 4 and grow kits are still legal in the Nederlands.

By 1973, a few pamphlets on hallucinogenic mushroom identification had appeared in print. The first described in detail several species of Psilocybe, common to the Pacific Northwest United States (Enos, 1970). Another described the identification of Psilocybe cubensis and its distribution in the Gulf States (Ghouled, 1973). Although Enos's (1970) pamphlet was printed in a limited edition (5000 copies), it also included in the text, a section devoted to mushroom cultivation. On the other hand, Ghouled's 16-page booklet sold 10s of thousands of copies during the next ten years at a price of $1.75 cents each.


It is common knowledge that several narcotic plants, as well as many visionary or entheogenic plants, have been and still are being cultivated for their magical and healing properties derived from their narcotic, visionary and euphoric effects. Some of these plants have been cultivated for over 5,000 years (Emboden, 1979; Schultes & Hofmann, 1973).
The oldest known cultivated narcotic plant is probably marijuana (Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica). Seeds from the Cannabis plant, as well as the leaves, stalks, and stems of the plant, were unearthed from an archeological site in China. They have been dated back to at least 4,000 B. C. (Schultes & Hofmann, 1979).
The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), known for its euphoric and pain killing properties, has also been cultivated for several thousand years. Seeds and poppy straw have been unearthed in excavation sites in both Switzerland and Germany, dating back to approximately 1,500 B. C. (Latimer & Goldberg, 1981; Merlin, 1984).

Another well known cultivated drug-plant is coca (Erythroxylum coca), used on a daily basis by indigenous native inhabitants of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia in South America (Kennedy, 1985).

According to Weil (1980), several other psychotropic plants which are mildly psychoactive and used for their stimulating effects include: coffee beans, tea leaves, and kola nuts (caffeine); cocao (theobromine) and caffeine); sugar cane and sugar beets (sucrose); tobacco (nicotine) and hops.

Each of these substances is used almost on a daily basis by hundreds of millions of individuals throughout the world. For example, betel nut (Areca catechu) is used daily by more than one-tenth of the world population. A few other notable entheogenic plants include kava kava (Piper methysticum), Yohimbe (Corynanthe yohimbe), Kat (Catha edulis), kola (Cola nitida) and Baby Hawaiian Woodrose Seeds (Argyreia nervosa) and morning glory seeds (Ipomoea violacea and Turbina corymbosa).

Of course there are many more entheogenic plants but they need not be included here.

While many of the various drug-using cultures knew the secrets of cultivating many of these plants, scholarly literature offers no reference on the cultivation of psilocybian fungi in indigenous cultures where these mushrooms were once used or are still currently in use. Many of the Middle American cultures, which employed mushrooms for ritual ceremonies, often utilized other psychoactive plants when mushrooms were not available (Schultes, 1976).

One possible reference mentioned in several scholarly journals appears to be vague and somewhat sketchy. Copelandia cyanescens, a dung-inhabiting species found in the tropics and neotropics of both hemispheres, was reported as being cultivated on cow and buffalo-dung by native cattle tenders on the island of Bali in Indonesia (Pollock, 1977-1978; Schultes & Hofmann, 1979; 1980).

Neither Pollock, nor Schultes and Hofmann mentioned the supposed methods of cultivation involved for this species, though Copelandia spp. do occur naturally in the dung of cattle and other ruminants. However, the mushrooms were most likely harvested by native cattle herders who probably collected them from manure after heavy rainfalls.

[FONT="]On the tropical island of Koh Samui, Thailand, situated in the southwest region of the Gulf of Siam, German immigrants and local Samui and Thai natives have been observed cultivating and harvesting both Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe subcubensis c.f. Allen & Merlin, 1992).

However, this involved moving cow patties to shaded areas covered by palm fronds to keep them out of the extreme heat from the sun. Also, after tilling the soil with both real buffalo's and Iron Buffalo's, the churned chunks of soil produce massive fruitings after rain and before the planting of the rice.

Which now brings us to a turning point in the history of visionary plant cultivation, this time a mushroom, belonging to the genus Psilocybe, is currently being cultivated by thousands of people whose sole interest is in growing them for their psychotropic effects, rather than as a source of food. The mushroom in question, Psilocybe cubensis, had its cultivation roots in a Parisian laboratory during the late 1950s, and on the following pages the authors will reflect on the events leading up to its present popularity among thousands of intrepid cultivators of psilocybian mushrooms.[/FONT]

Here is the first book on the cultivation of several species of Mexicana and P. cubensis Psilocybe mushrooms. From cubes to mexicana to semperviva, fagicola, and hoogshagenii, zapotecorum, yungensis, liberty caps (P. semilanceata) and Copelandia cyansecens,to name a few.

The two volumes printed on hand made paper and hand sown and hand printed were sold in a private edition of 1000 copies. The 2 vols. followed R. Gordon and Valentina P. Wasson's. 2-vols. Mushrooms, Russia and History (512 copies plus 2 for the Wassons) Now worth 4-10,000 dollars per copy.

The 2 volumes of the cult work and other fields were published originally in 3 separate French mycological and scientific journals without the color illustrations. The article publications appeared approximately 2 months apart from one another. Then were printed as a 2 vol. set. the images below represent water colored renditions by Michelle Bory and vol. one was published in 1958 followed by vol. 2 in 1967. The latter covered the Liberty caps, first brought to the attention of the public when mounties in canada (BC) confiscated specimens during a drug raid in the early 1960s and the Copes came to the attention of the public after a mother and her 2 children in Menton, France accidentally had a most frightening experience, later calmed down, after eating approximately 2 ounces in a bowl of soup mixed for three. So Heim and his colleagues cultivated both liberty caps and Copelandia species.

See following 14 images from the two vols. in my library and the P. mexicana used with permission.

Heim and Wasson, 1958 - 1967.
Vol. 1 and 2.

Cover page for volume 1.

P. cubensis cultures in lab water colors by Michelle Bory

P. zapotecorum

P. mixiensis

P. fagicola and P. hoogshagenii

P. yungensis, liberty caps (P. semilanceata) and Copelandia cyanescens

Liberty caps (P. semilanceata), P. yungensis and in the bottom middle are Copelandia cyanescens

Heim Paris, 1957, P. mexicana color

P. mexicana heim

Three images of P. semperviva color drawing Michelle Bory

P. semperviva heim lab photos

P. semperviva heim lab photos

Man of Knowledge

See below for Cultivation Mushroom Books and their history.

Continued later below when I am in the mood. It is hell sorting these images out and resizing them, etc and trying to put them in the order of publication,
I am missing several books from my library lost at sea through shipping at book rate by boat. Includes the Anarchist cookbook recipe for growing cubes, Browns book, Redbones, San Antonio's cultivation method, xavier Hollander id guide, The British Colombia Georgia Straight Tabloid identification manual and the Field Guide to the psilocybe mushrooms of British Colombia, the later three books being out of print since the 1970s. I did see Xavier's field guide listed on Ebay once for $300.00, That is $50.00 more than my first edition of Magic Mushrooms of the PNW sold for. There were 5 copies with purple colors and 2000 with blue covers. Before going to the Yellow cover format.

And there are 300-400 stolen copies from Raver Books in Seattle of the 1997 black and white edition of Magic mushrooms of the PNW. Difference between that and the 1997 full page color with 12 pictures is that the new version in 1997 had three extra pages of black and white images of 12 photographs of species and the color double sided centerfold. IF anyone sees someone trying to sell a large amount of that black and white version, there will be a reward. How much is not currently known.


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Edited by Man of Knowledge, 24 July 2010 - 05:46 PM.

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#2 roc


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Posted 25 July 2010 - 12:11 PM

That Life magazine cover is a classic...

#3 McDozd


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Posted 25 July 2010 - 01:13 PM

That Life magazine cover is a classic...

For sure! Great post sir, indeed pioneers for the OMC and those that started it.

#4 Man of Knowledge

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Posted 25 July 2010 - 03:06 PM

For sure! Great post sir, indeed pioneers for the OMC and those that started it.

The South African Transkei failed to post so here it is. It should have been right above trhe P. subcubensis photo.

Man of Knowledge,

and do not forget I stll need to post the cultivation grow books that evolved from the works of Heim and San Antonio and others.

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#5 Man of Knowledge

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Posted 25 July 2010 - 04:43 PM



Roger Heim, the noted French mycologist, accompanied R. Gordon Wasson on several expeditions into Oaxaca and other regions of southern Mexico during the late 1950’s. During these field trips, Dr. Heim collected several specimens of the so-called Mexican "magic [sic] mushrooms." After returning to Paris with several species of the fungi, many of which were new to science, Dr. Heim, in the quiet of his laboratory, keyed out the taxonomic particulars of the mushrooms, gave new names to the species he identified, and then proceeded, along with several of his colleagues, to develop the in vitro cultivation of some of these newly discovered psychoactive mushrooms (Heim & Cailleux, 1957;Heim & Hofmann, 1958;Heim & Wasson, 1958). Heim also contributed several water-colored renditions of these newly identified species to Dr. Wasson’s Life magazine article announcing the rediscovery of these mushrooms to the world (Wasson, 1957).

While Heim and his colleagues tried unsuccessfully to isolate the active principles in the mushrooms, they did succeed in growing them. Specimens of Psilocybe mexicana Heim were successfully cultivated (Fig. 7a) and eventually some specimens were forwarded to Albert Hofmann of Sandoz Pharmaceuticals in Basel, Switzerland. Hofmann eventually succeeded in isolating several hallucinogenic compounds from these mushrooms (Hofmann, 1980), and Hofmann’s colleagues, Arthur Brack and Hans Nobel, succeeded in developing the mass production of the fungal material in their laboratory at Sandoz (Wasson, 1962).

Heim and his colleagues later succeeded in cultivating several other species of the hallucinogenic Psilocybes on agar and compost media (Heim & Cailleux, 1957;Heim & Wasson, 1958), as did Singer (1958a). The first group of fungi which were successfully cultivated included: P. caerulescens Murr., P. mexicana Heim, P. semperviva Heim, P. zapotecorum Heim, and Stropharia cubensis (Heim & Hofmann, 1958). As previously noted, the results of their findings were first published in French, appearing in scientific journals, and were later presented to the public in Les Champignons Hallucinogènes du Mexique. Ten years later, a second volume was added to the first, Nouvelle Investigations sur les Champignons Hallucinogènes in which these intrepid scientists described in detail, the successful cultivation of P. acutissima Heim, P. mixaeensis Heim, and P. yungensis Heim (Heim et al., 1967).

From the cultivated mushrooms that were grown by Roger Heim in his laboratory, and the mushrooms and generic indocybin pills produced by Albert Hofmann and his colleagues at Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, enough psilocybin was created for clinical and therapeutic research on both animal and human subjects.

Of course, these early investigations eventually led to the cultivation of several species of psychoactive mushrooms, most of which were grown from spores and cultures of mushrooms originally collected in Mexico, and thus created the initiative for a few individuals to write and produce the numerous articles and mushroom manuals of the sixties and seventies which helped spread the awareness of psilocybian mushrooms.

While early research into the field of cultivation served the scientific community with its own unlimited supply of mushrooms, they (the mushrooms) were still not readily available to the vast growing number of users who felt that they needed to experience them. One must remember that the first cultivated psilocybin mushrooms grown in a laboratory were produced in petri plates and Erlenmeyer flasks. The first of the published growing manuals only created a new demand and need for more psychotropic fungi, which, in turn, became a matter of necessity for the supplier as well as the user. In this manner, the first cultivated illicit specimens of Psilocybe cubensis which were grown in mason jars (see Fig. 7b) on page 39 of this book, which, led to the eventual mass production of P. cubensis, which became a reality when home cultivators grew large amounts of mushrooms in trays, aquariums and large garden bed-boxes.


In the late 1960s, the first book published with the intention of reaching illicit drug users described growing techniques for the production of Psilocybe cubensis (Brown, 1968). It described methods for growing hallucinogenic fungi on agar, liquid culture, uncased rye grain, and compost. A similar method in this manual was given for growing Psilocybe mexicana Heim on potato dextrose yeast agar (PDY), and liquid culture. This book also featured recipes for the home manufacture, extraction, and synthesis of psilocin and other illicit hallucinogens.

Another publication also offered the reader with the same techniques previously described in Brown's book (Unsigned, 1969). The authors of both of these books apparently assumed that the reader had access to mushroom spores for Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe mexicana or had some basic knowledge of mushroom cultivation. However, at the time when these two books appeared in print, it would have been very difficult to obtain fresh specimens or spore prints for either of the two above mentioned species, thus hindering and making the methods described in these books somewhat impossible for the novice mushroom grower.

Two years later, Leonard Enos (1970)
Leonard Enos Book of cultivation and ID.

produced and published the first of many Psilocybe mushroom identification pamphlets that would appear in print over the next ten years (Fig. 8). This small booklet described in detail the identification of several varieties of Psilocybe and Panaeolus spp., which occurred naturally in the Pacific Northwest United States. Each species was accompanied by imaginative water colored rendition of no use to the reader in his or her identification of the species presented. Enos also wrote a chapter on mushroom cultivation, providing detailed information for culture techniques. However, his techniques basically required too many additives in the agar, thus making his method too complicated a process for the amateur cultivator interested in growing these mushrooms at home.

Two years after the publication of Enos' book, a second identification manual appeared in print. This pamphlet dealt only with the collecting of wild specimens of Psilocybe cubensis from the Gulf States (Ghouled, 1972).
Chouled, 1972:

Gould & Meredith, 1975

Ghouled offered his reading audience a method for growing Psilocybe cubensis from sections of a fresh cultured mushroom cap, and mentioned that he was preparing for publication a new mushroom growing manual which would describe new, never before published methods for growing hallucinogenic fungi. This book contained several errors, which over the years and many subsequent printings failed to be corrected. This guide, and the other above mentioned booklets did not lead to the popular cultivation of any hallucinogenic mushrooms, but they did pave the way for the eventual popularity of psilocybian cultivation.

Home Grown Highs By Mary Jane Superweed in 1972 wrote this guide on how to grow peyote, woodrose, and psilocybine mushrooms and it was later incorporated into Ronin Publishing's book by drug book entreprebneur Beverly Potter in a collection titled, "Nine Underground Classic." Some of the worst small booklets on drugs of the 1970s, including the Adam Gottleib's how to manufacture 5,000 doses of psilocybin a week in your home. Here is the cover for Home Grown Highs:

In the same year, another pamphlet on the cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis appeared in print and a new method was described for producing psilocybin from mycelia (Superweed, 1972). This method had been copied from a scientific paper on cultivation written by Catafolmo & Tyler (1964). The author of this 24-page booklet had also described several non-existing psilocybian species by repeating the synonyms of some varieties as individual species (Fig. 9).

Dennis and Terrance McKenna, along with Jeremy Bigwood and Kathleen Harrison, using the pseudonyms of Oss & Oeric, (1976), produced the best selling of all of growing manuals intended for a small audience interested in the home cultivation of Psilocybe spp. This book described several newly developed techniques originally employed in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporis. Instructions to be used in propagating Psilocybe cubensis were accompanied by step-by-step photographs of the process involved, enabling the grower to produce a good crop of mushrooms (Fig. 10). Eventually, this publication was translated into sever4al foreign language editions (See Fig. 10a).

McKenna and McKenna and Bigwood (Oss & Oeric, and Iremias the Obscure)

German Edition

The tremendous popularity of this growing manual encouraged many users into becoming home cultivators of hallucinogenic fungi. Its successful popularity in the drug subculture led to the proliferation during the next two years of more than half a dozen more books on mushroom cultivation (Harris, 1976; Gottleib, 1976[1997]; Unsigned, 1976a [Hongero Presses Mushroom Cultivators Bible];

A German edition of Peter Stafford's Psychedelic Encyclopedia chapter on Magic mushrooms soon became popular in Germany and the Nederlands.

Pollock, 1977; Gould & Meredith, 1977;Stevens & Gee, 1977).
Oss and Oeric's growing manual was also followed by the publication of more than a dozen hallucinogenic mushroom guides and identification manuals. By 1985, French and German translations of Oss and Oeric's book appeared in print in Europe (Stijve, 1989, Pers. Comm.).

Growing Wild mushrooms by Bob Harris

Psilocybin Producers Guide by Adam Gottleib 5000doses at home

Psilocybin Production by Adam Gottleib 2nd edition.

This above book by Gould and Meredith had numerous errors in the identification and dosages of species form the PNW and the SE United States. Their first book identified Amanita muscaria as the famed magic mushroom of Mexico.

Many of these growing manuals not only provided step-by-step photographs of the processes involved for the home cultivation of P. cubensis and other more potent species of Psilocybe, but also provided identification sections of American species, and listed companies from which spore prints and growing supplies could be obtained.

Often the identification of species described in many of these guides were incorrect and subsequent printings of these booklets failed to correct the misidentified species.

For example, Bob Harris’ book "Growing Wild Mushrooms" contained three errors in the identification of species from the Pacific Northwest United States (Fig. 11). These were later corrected in a second edition and Adam Gottleib’s (1976) manual misidentified some species with incorrect identifications and also described an impractical method for the manufacture and illicit production of 5000 doses of psilocin from mycelium, which he claimed could be produced on a weekly basis from one's own home (Fig. 13). However, this pamphlet, like that of Superweed(1972) also contained many of the same errors described in its 1976 printing. Errors which were never corrected.

Steven H. Pollock’s (1977) small booklet "Magic Mushroom Cultivation" described several new and never before published methods for cultivating several of the more potent, cold weather Psilocybe species which occurred naturally in the Pacific Northwest (Fig. 14). Pollock also described several newly developed techniques utilizing pasteurized wheat straw for the cultivation of Copelandia cyanescens and Panaeolus subbalteatus. Furthermore, Pollock also developed a method for producing sclerotia grown from the mycelia of Psilocybe tampanensis. He referred to the sclerotia as "Cosmic Camote," known in the Nederlands as "Philosophers Stones." Stevens and Gee’s (1977) book described growing procedures for P. cubensis culture tubes with agar (Fig. 15) and Gould & Meredith’s (1976) book offered procedures to complicated too follow (Fig. 16), as did the "Psilocybin Cultivators Bible from Hongero Press (Unsigned, 1976a) in Miami (Fig. 17).

It should be noted that the growing techniques employed in all of the above mentioned manuals were originally obtained and derived from the research and writings of several well known and prominent investigators who previously had paved the way in the field of hallucinogenic mushroom cultivation (Heim & Cailleux, Singer, 1958a; Ames et al., 1958; Kneebone, 1960; Catafolmo & Tyler, 1964; Agurrel, Blomkuist & Catafolmo, 1966; and San Antonio, 1971).

In 1978, psilocybin cultivation expert Jeremy Bigwood (1978) presented new and improved cultivation methods for producing high yield crops of Psilocybe cubensis. Bigwood presented his findings to the public and scientific community at the 1977 - 2nd International Conference on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms, held on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. The proceedings of this conference were published in 1978. "Teonanácatl: Hallucinogenic Mushrooms of North America" (Ott & Bigwood, 1978), was the first book to illustrate a step-by-step cultivation process in full color.

Besides reviewing the various growing methods on the taxonomy, identification and use of the 15 most common North American and Canadian species, This book also presented additional papers by R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann and Richard Evans Schultes describing their on going research in the field of ethnomycology. This book was translated into Spanish in 1985, becoming the first European book on identification and cultivation of psilocybian mushrooms.

In 1982, Bigwood & Beug (1982) published a paper verifying their research on the different potency levels obtained from several cultures and different strains of in vitro grown P. cubensis.

Another independent researcher involved with the cultivation of P. cubensis also contributed several scientific papers describing new and improved methods for obtaining better production ratios in the cultivation of P. cubensis (Badham, 1980, 1982, 1984b, 1985;Badham & Kincaid, 1984).
Magic Mushroom Cultivation by Steven Pollock

How to grow and identify psilocybine mushrooms Rich Gee and Jewell Stevens

The Mushroom Cultivator by Stamets and Chilton

Growing Gourmet and Medicinal mushrooms by Stamets

Mycellium Running

Cubensis Aquarium Growing Rich Gee

During the early 1980's, the interest in growing psilocybin mushrooms reached a new turning point in the history of entheogenic plant cultivation. It was the ultimate breakthrough in hallucinogenic mushroom cultivation and it came about as a result of the publication of a book that Andrew Weil described as being "the best source of information on growing mushrooms at home."

This book, written by Stamets and Chilton (1983), offered some of the most unique and simple growing techniques for the home cultivation of wild mushrooms. It was intended for both the professional mushroom grower, as well as the interested novice cultivator (Fig. 18a) Included in this large book were many methods for growing several exotic species of wild, edible mushrooms as well as their psychoactive cousins. Stamets (1994) later published a second mushroom cultivation book which described newer methods for growing wild edible fungi, medicinal fungi and even their hallucinogenic cousins (Fig. 18b).

Recent breakthroughs in psilocybian cultivation reached a new high with the publication by Rich Gee on newly developed techniques for growing psilocybin cubensis in Aquariums (Fig. 19). Aquarium cultivation is also popular in Holland where mushroom growing aquarium tanks are legally sold in Smart shops and in Head shops throughout the country. The Holland mushroom growing aquarium tanks are packaged for producing small crops of both Psilocybe cubensis and Copelandia cyanescens mushrooms.

In the late 1990s, Rene Winkleman published a short European version of the PF manual for the Dutch crowd of shroom growers used at home

And later in 2007, a short manual appeared in the Nederlands on Cubensis growing at home.

Recently, Yachaj (2001)

contributed a well-written article in the Entheogenic Review Fig. 19a, detailing his interpretation on the history of psilocybian cultivation, even providing us with yet more methods of cultivation for Psilocybe cubensis strains. In 2006, Nicholas and Ogamé Fig. 19b,

published another new cultivation book on how to grow both indoor and outdoor cold weather species of wild occurring natural Psilocybe mushrooms. And last year, in 2006, Rich Gee produced an excellent DVD, titled, "Cubensis Around the World 2007" (Fig. 19c). This DVD provides the viewer with the easiest method for growing Psilocybe cubensis at home. Rich then produced a beautiful and a unique poster of his shroom adventures with John Allen in Amsterdam and Tiel, Nederlands from the year before.

A manual for cultivating Amanita and cubes in Spanish by Italian mycologist Fericgla

and A Spanish manual for cultivating cubes titled "Divine Meat" by Dolores Roldan

Published reports on the home cultivation of P. cubensis began to circulate in scholarly journals as early as 1975 (Weil, 1975a, 1977;Ott, 1975, 1978). At the time when these first reports describing the home cultivation of hallucinogenic mushrooms appeared in print, Ott and Weil could scarcely imagine the enormity of both small and large scale mushroom cultivation operations which were sprouting up, so to speak, across the United States, Great Britain and Europe.

Cubensis Around the Word CD by Richard Gee

Amsterdam poster of shroom farms with mushroom john by Rich Gee

The PF Guide, one of the most popular from the Internet that created the first popular widespread use of syringes for transferring spores to mediums. Although commercial farms already had been using this method for over a century or more.

Homestead Book Companies Mushroom VHS Video

Roger Rabbit of the Shroomery has now produced the best grow video ever. Covers both edible as well as many varieties of magic mushrooms. Over 4 hours in length.


Omitted from this guide are approximately 12 drug related magazines that appeared over the years between High Times, 1976 and the present. Magazines such as hi-Life, Head and Heads (Canadian), Flash, Home Grown, Dealer, Paraphernalia, Rush, Stone Age, TRIP. TRP, Psychedelic Illuminations, Ecstasy, Treating Yourself (marijuana mag with shroom cult), and Shroom Talk to name a few.

During the fall of 1979, many drug-orientated magazines began to circulate throughout the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. While the primary focus of these ephemeral publications revolved around the recreational use of Cannabis and its cultivation, many other popular recreational drugs, mushrooms included, graced the page's of such publications as Rush, Dealer, Flash, Head, Hi-Life, Stone Age, Paraphernalia, and Home Grown, to name a few. The latter publication is from Great Britain. Every one of these publications published several easy to follow articles on the subject of hallucinogenic mushrooms, often displaying advertisements for mushroom related books, spores, and growing supplies. Many of the articles appearing in these magazines were contributed by freelance writers and researchers involved in the study of hallucinogenic mushrooms, yet several eminent scholars also contributed to the pages of some of these publications.

Blotter, a tabloid publication from Los Angeles, only published a few brief articles on mushroom cultivation (Myceliun, 1979) and Head magazine which devoted the majority of its pages to Cannabis, had six well-written articles on mushroom cultivation during its three years in print (Unsigned, 1977a, 1978a, 1978b), including the best illustrated and most comprehensive dope rag article by Jeremy Bigwood (Ito, 1978a, 1978b). Another publication, Hi-Life magazine, contributed several articles on mushroom cultivation (Stamets, 1979a, 1979b, 1979c;Unsigned, 1979a;Pollock, 1979; 1980), but folded after only a few years on the market.

Which now brings us to the most popular and best selling of all the drug-orientated publications to reach the public market; Trans-High Corporation's High Times magazine. This magazine, marketed specifically for those individuals involved in the drug-subculture, began as a quarterly publication in the fall of 1974 and within one year blossomed into a monthly phenomenon.

During the past 34 years, High Times had published numerous articles as well as many letters from readers on the subject of "magic mushrooms," yet up to 1989, had only published a few articles devoted specifically to the cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis (Obscure, 1976; Peele, 1988a, 1988b, 1989). No records were kept in regards to how many cultivation shroom articles this magazine has published between 1990-2007.

High Times magazine, since its initial conception in 1974, has also offered its reading audience numerous advertisements for the sale of mushroom identification guides, cultivation manuals, spores and growing supplies. One issue (Unsigned, 1977b) displayed more than a dozen such advertisements, indicating the successful popularity of hallucinogenic mushroom cultivation (see Fig. 20). Current issues of High Times still offers numerous advertisements for companies selling mushroom growing related items (see Fig. 21). And Homestead Book Company, as of September 2007, still maintains a full-page ad in High Times for complete mushroom growing kits that now cost over $100.00 with a guaranteed success of fruiting bodies from their new kits with a DVD on how to grow.

Over the years, these advertisements for mushroom growing supplies have reached millions of potential cultivators, many of who obviously attempted to cultivate P. cubensis. In 1978, an independent researcher of psychoactive plants and author of several books and articles on the subject of hallucinogenic fungi claimed "there is probably not a sufficient quantity of wild mushrooms to satisfy the demand[s] of a growing number of users" (Ott, 1978). However, over 18 species of psilocybin mushrooms are common in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and are seasonal; fruiting abundantly in man-made environments throughout the year. It should be noted that naturally grown outdoor species of Psilocybian mushrooms also occur from Texas to Florida (Copelandia and Psilocybe species), growing naturally in manure, manured and/or or grassy and swampy soils from Florida north to Georgia and include Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe atlanta and Psilocybe weilii and in South Carolina we find some Psilocybe cubensis. From Florida north to Maine and west to Michigan we find Psilocybe caerulipes, Panaeolus papilionaceus and Panaeolus subbalteatus. In Los Angeles we find Panaeolus subbalteatus on lawns), in New York City we find (Panaeolus papilionaceus and Panaeolus subbalteatus (on lawns, compost heaps, race tracks and riding stables in stable shavings). In Michigan we find Psilocybe caerulipes (in and on decayed wood debris along streams and riverbanks). In Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, we find both Psilocybe caerulipes and Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata (on wood debris, along streams and riverbanks, as well as in gardens beds around buildings and in parks). In Virginia we find Psilocybe caerulipes (also on wood debris, along streams and river banks) and in Alaska we find Panaeolus subbalteatus and in Hawaii we find six species, five of which belong to the subgenus of Copelandia and one species of Panaeolus, Panaeolus subbalteautus. However, in many states where Psilocybe mushrooms do not grow, we find the home cultivated Psilocybe cubensis cultivated in those states where magic mushrooms are not so common or do not occur naturally. We also must note that we have found that the home cultivation in those states is popular and hidden from public view. And this has not deterred growing these illicit crops at home in states where natural shrooms are common.

In 1980, Andrew Weil reported that "a number of companies now sell by mail kits to grow the mushrooms and spores of the common species. Federal law controls all `materials' containing psilocybin. Spores of the mushrooms do not contain the drug and are (therefore) legal, although they produce illegal material when they germinate." Weil then goes on to say that "growing mushrooms from spores is not as easy as growing higher plants from seeds, but many people have learned to do it, especially with P. cubensis. As a result, that mushroom is now available all over America."

One collector of psychoactive mushrooms, a frequent picker in the Pacific Northwest United States who wishes to remain anonymous, confided to the author that over an eight year period he had personally collected enough species of psychoactive fungi, producing more than 125,000 spore prints of eight species of hallucinogenic fungi. He then supplied these spore prints to several small mushroom growing business ventures.

One very successful commercial mushroom growing kit executive (Pers. Comm., March 22, 1988) who wished to remain anonymous reported that each year his company sells approximately 300 mushroom growing kits. These kits are usually purchased through advertisements in national magazines. These kits are sold to individuals from the United States (including Hawaii and Alaska), Canada, England, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.

The successful cultivation of P. cubensis from these mushroom growing kits virtually depends upon the skill and cleanliness of the potential cultivator. Not everyone who purchases these kits appears to be capable in producing the products he/she seeks. Over the years, both (JWA) and Jonathan Ott (1978) have observed kilos of P. cubensis being harvested by some of the many commercial mushroom growing entrepreneurs.


A recent United Nations paper (Seigel, 1985), which reviewed current drug use in 1985 amongst California teenagers, reported, "psilocybin mushrooms are the hallucinogenic drug of choice among young people in California. This trend has been supported by the proliferation of sale of mushroom spores and growing kits that enable users to cultivate their own products cheaply, reliably, and directly. The most common cultivated species has been [and still is] P. cubensis, selling for approximately $10.00 per unit [usually one dried gram]." This report further states that the "use of psilocybin may decrease" one reason being that "the inconvenience of growing and the storing of psilocybin mushrooms is likely to result in their decreasing use." This same government funded report also states that a decrease in the use of these mushrooms by the youth of California might also come about because of the availability of many newer designer drugs, some of which are not, as yet, under the control of the federal government.

Three misleading and confusing factors pertaining to this report should be mentioned and clarified:

1. Most teenagers who purposely consume psychoactive fungi for recreational purposes only require one dried gram of Psilocybe cubensis to achieve an altered state of consciousness, while the normal recommended clinical dosage for this species had previously been reported as being from 3-5 dried grams (Stein, 1958; Ott, 1976, 1978, 1993). This higher dosage would be relatively comparable or equivalent to the amount of mushrooms eaten during a Mazatec healing and curing ceremony. If teenagers were able to consume a larger amount of mushrooms they would most likely "run the risk of a negative [(not dysphoric)] reaction" to the inebriation. Most teenagers feel content with the mild one-gram dosage that is not a danger to their health.

2. Although it is true that many teenagers are involved one way or another in the illegal use of both illicit and legal drugs--the primary ones being alcohol, tobacco and Cannabis--there are just as many who may be prone to experiment with psychoactive fungi. However, those who do most likely would never be involved in their cultivation; the reason being, many teenagers who use psychoactive mushrooms know how to pick them and would rather pick them than grow them. This would be applicable since many young people would not have enough patience required, for the time involved, in growing them.

3. Large quantities of P. cubensis can easily be grown quite efficiently in the space of a walk-in-closet or small room. Over the past fifteen years, one of the authors (JWA) has been most fortunate in being able to gain the confidence of several growers, many of whom allowed him to observe both small and large scaled cultivation operations in progress. One observation which JWA became aware of was that none of the growers of P. cubensis whom the author met with had ever felt or thought that it was an inconvenience in growing or storing their entheogenic fungi crops.

Continued below with a wrap up of cultivation histories and bibliographies of all cultivations of psilocybian fungi, the works of Allen and Gartz on this subject with newer methods of cultivation and 4 versions of Magic Mushrooms Around the World and several cd and printed book copies of psilocybian Mushroom Cultivation by Allen and Gartz and the latest cult issue for P. ovoideocystidiata.,

After the next post today or tomorrow, I will began the huge task of organizing the magic mushroom field guides from around the world. The meat of the identification of magic shrooms. The ultimate collection of shroom guides to magic exclusively here at mycotopia.

Paul Stamets, Amsterdam, 1998.

and John W. Allen, Jonathan Ott and Paul Stamets at the Tropane Museum in Amsterdam in 1998. Notice Paul is nodding off, although I have a similar photo with him smiling.

Man of Knowledge

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Edited by Man of Knowledge, 25 July 2010 - 11:16 PM.

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#6 McDozd


    In this moment

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Posted 25 July 2010 - 05:33 PM

Thats in insane collection sir, wow. Astounding amounts of knowledge there!
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#7 iamsmiley


    the ice woman

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Posted 25 July 2010 - 09:45 PM

i thought i had a good dope book collection but that kicks butt on me!!!

#8 dub504


    Le bons temps rouler

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Posted 26 July 2010 - 04:04 PM

Thanks! Really enjoying the read...

#9 fungirfriends



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Posted 19 August 2010 - 03:15 AM


#10 Leroy Brown

Leroy Brown

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Posted 09 May 2011 - 08:55 PM

absolutely beautiful

#11 anne halonium

anne halonium


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Posted 09 May 2011 - 09:12 PM

:bow:for this thread.
:bow:for "oss and oeric"

#12 Man of Knowledge

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 05:33 PM

:bow:for this thread.
:bow:for "oss and oeric"

Of course Oss and Oeric were Terence and Dennis McKenna and still around and not forgotten, Irimias the obscure whose photos graced the pages of the Oss and Oeric book is none other than Jeremy Bigwood, google him. I might also add that J. Ott also helped contribute to this work along with Michael Beug of Evergreen State College in Washington State,

Man of Knowledge.

As I no longer have high speed internet due to Quest in Seattle who screwed my computer up, I am having a difficulty with posting part 2 of part four of the field guides from 1960 to 2010. I do intent to complete that sometime but at the moment, SS is trying to collect over $2,000 dollars they say they over paid me from 1997 to Oct of 2002. If they do I could be homeless as currently my rent is now more than $40 than my SS check. They want to dock my payments $68 a month until it is paid off. If they do that I am on the street. It is a friggin nite mare. Even my medicare/medicaid now charges me $1.09 per prescription for my diabetic medicine and my pain and diet medication as well as a $3.09 cent charge for Actos, another diabetic pill that I now have to take so that I do not have to use insulin. A $13.00 a month phone bill, a $9.99 Internet service bill, a $50 dollar a month cable bill, an $18.00 a month bus pass. and I don't have shit at the end of the month. So I am awaiting a hearing, a waiver and another arbitrary hearing as to why I shouldn't pay. They keep sending me letters asking how I will pay, and I do not believe I owe them shit. A real scary pain. I feel I should call Homeland Security as I am being threatened by my own government and I consider their actions towards me as an act of domestic terrorism. I really do feel afraid of my government. No one should be afraid of this government.

Man of Knowledge, and have a shroomy day,.

My entire library, computer, 7 cameraas, and all things shroom and drug related are for sale to one person only, includes all my copyrights including several unpublished books and papers and videos. And all other drug related books and papers in my files.

#13 corpzZz



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Posted 15 June 2011 - 11:00 AM

wow that farm in Amsterdam was huge, I was there before fresh ones were illegal, nice to see where it probably came from :D

Thanks for posting this.

Edited by corpzZz, 15 June 2011 - 11:02 AM.

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