Fukushima: It Ain't Over Yet
Posted 20 January 2013 - 03:22 PM
they recently restarted one of the Fukushima reactors!:eusa_doh:
sure as hell they need to repay some of the 125 billion dollars of "decontamination" cost.....wtf??
+ they recently admitted a leak of 45 tons of radioactive water into the ocean.
I've read they could have prevented the catastrophe by immediately sealing the reactor shut, but the decision had to be passed to the highest owner/investorship levels like a melting stone...
so they waited too long, and the core got supercritical...after that, any equipment trying to probe on the inside got burnt out in a hot shower of radiationi.
Also, the backup generators, which are supposed to power the water circulation pumps, were supposedly rated for insufficient voltage, as the pumps were GE 600 volt types, the gens apparently less, which caused them to sag into voltage brakedown, one after the other... and this in turned allowed for the core to melt.
it's over, the farness of death.,...the furthest from over...
... i mean...i'm out of words.
but don't worry! everybody else (and including Japan) have been polluting the ocean with barrells, that noone knows how long will last,
ever since my dad was a baby!
Posted 21 January 2013 - 06:11 AM
Salt Power: Norway Project Gives Osmotic Energy a Shake
Few people think of osmosis as a way to help feed the world's hunger for energy. But an experiment under way on a coastal inlet in Norway may help draw attention to the power packed in the salty seas.
Tofte, an hour south of Oslo on the inlet known as Oslofjord, is home to a waterfront cellulose factory and not much else. But for more than three years, Norwegian energy company Statkraft has been rather quietly testing the technology in the world's first osmotic power plant, in a renovated wing of the town's factory.
With a meager two to four kilowatts of capacity, barely enough power to foam a cappuccino, the plant is a decidedly small start. But the Norwegian Center for Renewable Energy (SFFE) pegs the global potential of osmotic power to beabout 1,370 terawatt-hours per year, about equivalent to the current electricity consumption of Eastern Europe and Russia combined. (Related Quiz: What You Don't Know About World Energy)
So Statkraft is now seeking to ramp up its work, while researchers around the world are joining in the effort to harness a new form of renewable energy from the saltwater that covers more than 70 percent of the Earth's surface.
Power From Movement
Osmotic power, also known as "salinity gradient" power, relies on a rather basic physical process: diffusion. Salty water molecules tend to move into freshwater nearby. It happens wherever rivers meet the sea, creating energy in the form of heat. Place a semipermeable barrier between the saltwafter and the freshwater, and the diffusion of molecules through the membrane is osmosis.
For decades, reverse osmosis has been used to filter water. Sidney Loeb, the American chemical engineer who is credited with developing a practical reverse osmosis process in the 1950s, later developed a technique for capturing the energy in the rush of saltwater to the freshwater side of a membrane.
Statkraft estimates it spent over ten years and more than 100 million kroner (about $12 million USD) in research funds to help develop one of these techniques, pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), in the prototype facility at Tofte. It's a big investment for a facility that has only enough capacity to operate a coffee machine, but size of output isn't the key metric for researchers at this point. Statkraft views the Tofte experiment as a lab for learning how to capitalize on osmotic power´s huge potential and strong environmental credentials. (Related: "Going 'All The Way' With Renewable Energy?")
Independent experts see the potential. "It´s a very clean process," said Friso Sikkema, senior specialist in power generation and renewables at DNV Kema, a leading research firm in the field based in the Netherlands.
Osmotic power generation is carbon-free, and Statkraft reports that its plant´s main byproduct is brackish water. Questions remain however, concerning future large-scale operations and their effect on salinity levels or how pretreatment processes might impact local marine life.
Bruce Logan, director of the Hydrogen Energy Center and Engineering Energy and Environmental Institute at Penn State University says he is "optimistic osmotic power can play an important role," but cautioned "there´s not enough work going on in terms of developing inexpensive membranes tailored for the process."
Even though membrane technology is still in its early stages, the force currently generated by the experimental process can be significant. With pressures at the Norwegian test site reaching 12 bar on the seawater side, "it's like creating an artificial waterfall of 120 meters" (394 feet), according to Statkraft's head of osmotic power, Stein Erik Skilhagen. In this early-stage experiment, though, the flow of water is more a trickle than a cascade, so power output at Tofte is still small. (Related: "Photos: Preserving Beauty, Providing Hydropower in Scotland")
Interest in the renewable energy source is growing internationally. NASA has been working on osmotic systems for the treatment of wastewater aboard spacecraft, and is now investigating the PRO method with tertiary treatment, or PRO/TT, with the aim of developing technology that can purify water and create energy at the same time.
Hydro-Québec, the largest electricity generator in Canada and the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world, is partnering with Statkraft on next-stage development of PRO technology. It is looking into the feasibility of osmotic energy along Canada's long coastline.
Japan's Tokyo Institute of Technology opened its Osmotic Power Research Centre in 2010, the year before a devastating earthquake and tsunami crippled the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant and led to a rethinking of the nation's energy future. Akihiko Tanioka, the researcher leading the osmotic effort, argues that the flow volume of Japan's rivers contain the potential energy capacity to replace five or six nuclear reactors if osmotic plants were situated where rivers run into the sea.
A Natural Battery
Researchers in the Netherlands are working on an alternative to PRO—reverse electrodialysis, or RED. DNV Kema´s Sikkema said the process, essentially, is "creating a natural battery."
In the RED approach, the osmotic energy of mixing fresh and salt water is captured by directing the solution through an alternating series of positively and negatively charged exchange membranes. The resulting chemical potential difference creates a voltage over each membrane and leads to the production of direct electric energy.
While less developed than PRO, the RED process may eventually become popular for a lower initial cost structure. "PRO calls for complex machinery, chambers and turbines and generators. Economy of scale plays a large role. In our (RED) technology, we produce electricity directly from difference in fresh and saltwater," said Sikkema.
With all the upsides, why isn't osmotic power already warming homes around the world?
Infrastructure for the process is currently very expensive. Statkraft estimates that a PRO plant that can supply power for 30,000 homes would need to be the size of a sports stadium and require 5 million square meters of membrane. Add to that the challenge of creating intake water clean enough to keep from fouling the membranes, and there are some costly hurdles to overcome.
But proponents like Skilhagen point out that the development of osmotic power will follow a curve like that of other green energy sources. "You have to compare it with other renewables: wind, hydro and solar, for example. There is a high level of investment in the beginning, but the technology will mature and become more attractive in future. Osmotic's environmental benefits will make it a useful part of the future low-carbon energy mix if costs can be brought in line with other renewables."
Penn State's Logan says development of inexpensive membrane technology will be key to establishing a realistic price point for osmotic energy.
The next step for Statkraft is to ramp up from the prototype at Tofte to a larger pilot plant that will generate more energy and be connected to the grid. The company has applied for permits to construct a pilot on the west coast of Norway.
Despite his concern about the pace of development of osmotic power membranes, Penn State's Logan is hopeful about Statkraft´s plans, calling them "a really important advance." He added: "With decent research and advances, osmotic power could move forward in a three- to five-year timeframe." (Related Interactive: World Electricity Mix)
This story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visitThe Great Energy Challenge.
- Shadowlord and Spooner like this
Posted 21 January 2013 - 07:32 AM
Here I was thinking that the only good clean energy out there was hydro, wind, or solar.
Posted 24 January 2013 - 09:00 PM
Posted 31 January 2013 - 03:04 PM
Thousands of cows were abandoned inthe evacuated zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after theMarch 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated the Tōhoku region of Japan andreleased radioactive materials from the plant.
Now, nearly two years after the disaster, those abandoned cattlewere found to be contaminated with radioactive elements. Traces of radioactivecesium, silver and tellurium were found in the 79 cattle analyzed by ascientific team led by TohokuUniversity engineer TomokazuFukuda and published in the journal PLOS ONE.
[h=2]PHOTOS: JapanEarthquake and Tsunami: Before and After[/h]Fetuses and calves had radioactive materials concentrations upto 1.5 times higher than the adults. The calves had been born, and the fetusesconceived, after the disaster.
In the event of a nuclear Armageddon, don’t eat the steak.Radioactive elements collected most heavily in the cattle’s skeletal muscle.
The cattle showed differences in radioactivity depending on whatthey had been eating. One group of cows had been kept in a pen and fed grass thathadn’t been contaminated in the Fukushimadisaster. These cattle were less radioactive than cattle that had been allowedto graze freely in the area within 20 kilometers of the nuclear plant.
None of the cattle showed outward signs of mutation.
The Japanese cattle aren’t the first bovines to be inadvertentlyirradiated. During some of the very first tests of the atomic bomb at theTrinity site in New Mexico,cattle were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout. Those cows were alsostudied to help scientists (and potential nuclear doomsday survivors)understand how the steak and milk suppliers might stand up to radiation.
IMAGE: One of the abandoned cows ambles down a road in Namie,Namie, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, April 12, 2011 (Voice of America, Steve Herman, WikimediaCommons)
Posted 25 February 2013 - 08:14 PM
Posted 26 February 2013 - 07:41 PM
Posted 26 February 2013 - 08:38 PM
One thing I've noticed is that none of the mainstream sites are even mentioning the possibility of reactor building #4 collapsing in an earthquake. Sounds pretty feasible to me, and it should be big ass news, right?
I want to see more info on the likelihood of another big earthquake in the area of Fukushima in the next several years.
Posted 27 February 2013 - 12:11 AM
I want to see more info on the likelihood of another big earthquake in the area of Fukushima in the next several years.
Isn't this a little bit of a stretch? I don't think these calculations are possible, unless maybe there is a nostradamus.com
Here's a good site: http://fukushimaupdate.com/
Imo, the whole story will never come through one location. Reality, unfortunately requires more than one-stop-shopping.
Posted 27 February 2013 - 07:23 AM
- Shadowlord likes this
Posted 27 February 2013 - 08:17 AM
Posted 10 April 2013 - 07:01 AM
There's a pretty well-known rumor that a UFO was sighted over Chernobyl after that nuclear disaster. Scientists measuring radiation levels after the UFO was seen shining a strange beam of light down into the reactor said the radiation levels were reduced ten-fold.
Posted 12 April 2013 - 07:45 AM
But can any planetary/cosmic entity speed up time itself? The half-life of elements is what it is, at the BASE level according to ( ? ), so making it harmless is millions of years of time (or decades for some toxic fission products)
...so maybe the UFOs can warp time in a local tiny spot of space, but.... i just can't imagine, what in the name of holy spacetime continuity happens to the spacetime very close to that spot?
btw, it's funny seeing well-known and rumor sit together like that...because it makes the rumor seem more like a fact.
It's also a problem of technology. For example, the basic underlying electromagnetic theory of much of todays technicalities were derived like decades (in some cases more than a 100 years) before we had acces to technology, which got us access to "mine" and deplete energy FASTER, which got us to better technology, and it eventually brought us flash memory cards and the ISS... (but that theory, on paper, needs to survive a lot of time before some group of people (who also had to live a normal life, like eating and shitting) got to manifest it in a physical, touchable thing)...
we're advancing, sure, but there are function graphs that will meet at the intersection of our collapse, or at least a serious knock down. Sure thatthe theoretic work (in cosmic proportion) is possibly next to...primitive, but where does that make our technology stand? And if you want to get to some technological level, you must destroy your enviroment, because you need precious, rare materials and energy sources - and here lies the trade-off, i believe.
Edited by ernestro, 12 April 2013 - 07:52 AM.