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#1 wildedibles



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Posted 22 January 2014 - 05:12 AM

Me and hubby were walking to a friends daughters b-day party :) we decided to check out the trails in the woods on the way there

We know from b4 there is Lactarius mushrooms there and I am interested in researching them more for a few friends with MS....So into the woods we go ;)



The 1st mushrooms we see ares these lactarius and a green Russulia mushroom






I remembered they were really close to the road just down into the trail this is a wash out place for all the road water to go so these mushrooms wood acumulate any road salt and such not a great collecting spot .... keep walking into the woods see what we can find further in ......



An Amanita perhaps not the color I am interested in so it is good to grow and help the tree's :) not digging the bulb out further



These r sooo cute and neat color too and all over the trail


#2 wildedibles



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Posted 22 January 2014 - 05:14 AM

Wow I just took a few hours to put this whole thread together and 3/4 of the pictures couldnt be posted I wanst alloud to post them all at once in one post soooo all that work erased GGGRrrr I am in too much pain to do it all over again try again later with it all blocked up I guess

Started at 3am to 5am too much work down the drain

Edited by wildedibles, 22 January 2014 - 05:16 AM.

#3 Seeker2be


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Posted 22 January 2014 - 09:18 AM

I share your frustration.  Posting multiple pictures seems cumbersome.  Too bad you can't just make a layout on your pwn computer thencopy and past the who ball of wax in one fell swoop but alas you cant do this or at least I cant.  Maybe someone could fix this and save us all time and angst.

Edited by Seeker2be, 22 January 2014 - 09:19 AM.

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#4 wildedibles



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Posted 22 January 2014 - 09:37 AM

You know I was thinking about doing it in note pad first ;) that would have worked better but thought why do it twice :) lol should have I dont think any one could fix it cause i erased it ....


Thanks for trying to help :)

#5 wildedibles



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Posted 22 January 2014 - 09:47 AM

Here is a close up of thoes tiny ones :)



chanterelle mushrooms very lucky yummy find :)








Nice big ones :)



We decided to get to that bday party b4 we had a big bag full of mushrooms ;) ... We took the opportunity to tell the curious kids about wild mushrooms that u need to study or learn from some people who know what to pick cause like berries some are good and some are poison to eat :)   I think there Papa was helping me explain in some way :)

Edited by wildedibles, 22 January 2014 - 09:48 AM.

#6 wildedibles



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Posted 23 January 2014 - 05:33 AM

When the party was over we finished the hunt :) I actually seen this flower on the way there and wanted to look at it more closely never seeing it b4 .... so on the way back  I took lots of pictures :)


Eyebright http://en.wikipedia..../wiki/Euphrasia


They r tiny little plants maybe 10cm to 15cm high



They grow on grass using the salt and water the grass collects ... If I would have dug one up the roots would be attached to the roots of the grass....and looking closer at the pictures especially below the grass and the eyebright come out of the same spot maybe it lets some of the grass survive maybe more of a relationship rather than the eyebright eating the grass? :)


I cannot stop thinking about the Lobster mushroom that grows on a lactarius mushroom or a Russulia mushroom both of these mushrooms were found in the hunt too but no Lobster 

I am thinking about this lobster mushroom cause it grows on these other mushrooms but it is smart enough not to kill all the mushrooms cause then it wouldnt survive next year so it keeps one healthy mushroom close by so it can still survive the following year

Like this plant it hasnt killed the host totally ;) maybe being smart enough to survive the following year ;)


"The plant is a hemiparasite and can steal water and salts from grasses."


ok reading more it does keep the host alive so it can get what it needs from it :)

"Both root and stem parasitic plants have evolved to use one or more means of finding their hosts in order to germinate. Most parasitic plants need to germinate in close proximity to their host plants because their seeds are limited in the amount of resources necessary to survive without nutrients from their host plants. Resources are limited due in part to the fact that most parasitic plants are not able to use autotrophic nutrition to establish the early stages of seeding.[2][3]

Root parasitic plant seeds tend to use chemical cues for germination. In order for germination to occur, seeds need to be fairly close to their host plant.[2][3] For example, the seeds of the parasitic plant Witchweed (Striga asiatica) need to be within 3 to 4 millimeters (mm) of its host in order to pick up chemical signals in the soil to signal germination. This range is important because Striga asiatica will only grow about 4 mm after germination.[2] Chemical compound cues sensed by parasitic plant seeds are from host plant root exudates that are leached in close proximity from the host’s root system into the surrounding soil. These chemical cues are a variety of compounds that are unstable and rapidly degraded in soil and are present within a radius of a few meters of the plant exuding them. Parasitic plants germinate and follow a concentration gradient of these compounds in the soil toward the host plants if close enough. These compounds are called strigolactones. Strigolactone stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in seeds causing them to germinate.[2][3]" from

and from the same page ;)


"Plants parasitic on fungi

About 400 species of flowering plants and one gymnosperm (Parasitaxus usta), are parasitic on mycorrhizal fungi. They are termed myco-heterotrophs rather than parasitic plants. Some myco-heterotrophs are Indian pipe (Monotropa uniflora), snow plant (Sarcodes sanguinea), underground orchid (Rhizanthella gardneri), bird's nest orchid (Neottia nidus-avis) and sugarstick (Allotropa virgata)." neat info I have found Indian pipe deeper in the woods and an orchid too on this hunt pictures to follow in the next post :)










Best info I read on the net so far ;)



"Eyebright is slightly tonic and the actions are anti-catarrhal, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, and astringent.  The anti-catarrhal property of eyebright works first on the upper portion of the respiratory tract and then on the mucous structures of the throat and bronchial tubes.  It is very beneficial if the discharge is thin and watery.  The common cold, hay fever, and even measles are helped by eyebright.  The bronchial and pulmonary irritation caused by measles is relieved by the use of this herb.  When there is an earache, headache, or distress across the eyes, as in acute catarrhal affections, eyebright has a direct influence upon the lachrymal apparatus.   It has been recommended for use in epidemic influenza and when there is intestinal catarrhal as well.

The aucubin found in eyebright has an anti-inflammatory action which is useful when there is a cough, hoarseness, or sore throat.  This also accounts for eyebrights well known reputation for soothing tired and inflamed eyes as well as improving weak eyesight with its cooling and detoxifying effect  The other key nutrients responsible for this are niacin, riboflavin, cobalt, and silica. 

The tannins act as astringents to help dry up secretions and relieve inflammation of the mucous membranes.  This is helpful when treating conjunctivitis an inflammation of the protective membrane of the eyes, blepharitis an inflammation of the eyelids, and the catarrhal
conditions of the sinuses and nasal passages such as sinusitis and hay fever.  The tannins and quercetin, a flavonoid found in eyebright are thought to reduce allergic responsiveness by inhibiting the release of histamines.  ‘It's a very good herb for relieving runny eyes, especially
when they're caused by allergies,’ confirms Claire Gibson, N.D., a naturopathic physician based in Oakland, California.

The caffeic acid acts as an antiseptic in eyebright similar to goldenseal. This antiseptic property helps in fighting styes which is an inflammation of one or more of the sebaceous glands in the eyelid which is caused by the build up of toxic poisons and it will help other eye infections as well.  The aucubin content also helps fight bacterial infections and liver toxicity.  For this reason some herbalists use eyebright to treat jaundice and liver problems.  Some studies say that eyebright has even been used to improve appetite, improve memory, help with vertigo, and cure epilepsy.

The vitamins B, C, E, beta carotene, copper, and selenium found in eyebright have been shown to improve clarity of eyesight by one or more lines on the eye chart over a 6 month period.  The Vitamins B, E, and selenium were also shown to reduce cataracts over 5 months.  In macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy the disease was slowed by 70% by using the Vitamins A, C, E and selenium all of which are found in eyebright.

The antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, and beta carotene all lower the risk of cataract formation and are all found in eyebright.  Even a slight deficiency of vitamin A can cause tired eyes, sensitivity to light, dry eyelids and susceptibility to infection.  The vitamin A found in eyebright may be why it is said to decrease sensitivity to light.  Vitamin A is also crucial to the formation of visual purple for darkness adaptation so eyebright would help with night time vision as well.  A severe deficiency in vitamin A can cause ulceration and distortion of the cornea and result in blindness.

The antioxidant vitamin C protects the lens proteins and proteases from damage by sunlight as well as helps in the production and maintenance of collagen which is important in glaucoma.  Vitamin C works best with the flavonoid quercetin both of which are found in eyebright.  The antioxidant vitamin E which is found in eyebright has been used to improve visual acuity in nearsightedness, crossed eyes, macular degeneration and reduce cataract risk by 50%.

When the body is deficient in the vitamin B complex, eye muscles may become paralyzed, light sensitivity may develop as well as itching, burning, bloodshot, and watery eyes.  Nearsightedness can result from stress and the B vitamins help protect the nerves from damage that is due to stress.  Vitamin B-5 or pantothenic acid is an anti-stress vitamin.  Vitamin B-1 or thiamin is important for intracellular eye metabolism and vitamin B-2 or riboflavin deficiency has been linked to cataracts.  All of these B vitamins are found in eyebright and contribute to its remarkable effects on the eyes.

Zinc, copper, and selenium help protect against cataracts because they act as antioxidants.  The selenium also is used in the production of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that protects red blood cells and cell membranes from free-radical damage.  Zinc also helps stop macular degeneration because it is vital for the normal lens function, night vision, and maintaining the retina of the eye since there is a higher concentration of zinc in the retina then in any other organ.  All of these minerals are found in eyebright.

Eyebright has some unusual characteristics that other herbs don’t possess.  The volatile oil properties in the flowers are activated by sunlight and saturate the conjunctiva, cornea, sclerotic, chorloid, ciliary muscle and process, iris, suspensory ligament, both the posterior and anterior fluid chambers, lens, retina, optic nerve, and other miscellaneous tissue membranes. 
The herb will then strengthen all of these and provide an elasticity or more resiliency to the optic nerve and devices responsible for sight.  If any of these tissues have a laxity then it will help to tighten them up to normal again or if any are too tight it will help relax them.  Eyebrights chemical constituents regulate the tensile strength of all the fibrous mass in the eyes by either tightening up or relaxing them as the case merits.  Sunlight is the key to the eyebright herbs remarkable chemical conditioning performance.  In the dark this chemical conditioning doesn’t function"


:) I have bad eyes and always thought this plant would be of benifit to me but never really used it b4 but now I cannot ignore this plant cause I am having inflamation issues and sinus infection issues all the information points to this being a great herbal for me :) I love when I find special plants like this for me or others for that matter :)

Never seeing it b4 and reading all this info it was a very special meant to find plant that can help me sooo much


I didnt collect this plant cause i wanted to study it and there wasnt alot of it so I only took one or 2 to study not enough for medicinal value so I am going to go to the health food store and get some and collect some in the summer making sure to leave lots to grow more this year .... It might be hard to transplant but i might try putting it with grasses in the sunny sand somewhere :)

some more great info :) I cannot believe this fits so well with what i am feeling this plant be great medicine for me a gift from the plant world when it is needed so much :) thank you special little flowers :)

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#7 wildedibles



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 06:47 AM

Here is another mushroom growing on the side of the road I find these ones in hot dry sandy areas

not sure on the name ...








The snail loves it :)


and the roadside plants there is a wild lettuce in there too :) and Dogbane toxic plant ....raspberries, strawberries and goldenrod





#8 wildedibles



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 07:01 AM

This next Orchid was on the side of the road ... It has a story here already



"Eight populations of Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz originating from the area of Lower
Silesia in Poland (Central Europe) were examined in respect to composition of their nectar and its
influence on the insect attraction in field conditions. The chemical composition of Epipactis helleborine
(L.) Crantz nectar was studied by means of GC/MS SIM. A number of compounds with potential narcotic
properties were identified in the nectar, namely 3-{2-{3-{3-(benzyloxy)propyl}-3-indol, 7,8-didehydro-
4,5-epoxy-3,6-d-morphinan and oxycodone. Pollinator and visitor insects were identified. The key role of
ethanol in the process of alluring and stunning of the insects was discussed. A scheme of the influence of
the identified compounds on the pollinators was proposed."


They don't really know why predator insects love this plant ;) it having an alcohol and a pain killer in it we can really only guess why ...Maybe in hunting they can get injured lol and need some pain killers ;)


This plant usually grows in the dark woods but will grow on road sides as well ... I think deep in the woods u do not get lots of pollinators in the dark woods they rather be in the sun where most of the flowers are


But if you think about it some predator insects are nocturnal so they might hide in the dark woods to sleep

all just guesses

maybe the plant sends out some type of sent they can smell and come in growing deep in the woods with no sun they might not get all the nutrition they need to grow therefore call in insects?

They do have a relationship with mushrooms and perhaps other plants as well so they can survive in nutrient low dark places ;)














I found an insect hiding in this flower and had to share its secrete what I can guess about it anyway ;)


#9 wildedibles



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 07:06 AM

This plant I always thought it was Horehound but now I am not so sure it was also growing on the side of the road it is a mint member tho and the other place I have seen it was at my moms house which used to be an old farm so it could have been planted instead of being a wild mint.....????

There is also heal all growing with it







and then we get into the trail again and see some mushrooms





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#10 wildedibles



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 07:19 AM

Here is some tree pictures some of these mushrooms have a relationship with the trees so I try and remember to take pictures of the surrounding forest


















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#11 wildedibles



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 07:32 AM



Organic acid compositions were noted in six mushroom species
: Boletus edulis,Gyroporus castaneus, Lactarius deliciosus,
Suillus collinitus and Xerocomus chrysenteron.

Each had at
five acids in common - citric acid, ketoglutaric acid, malic acid,
succinic acid and fumaric acid.

In A. caesarea, malic acid and
ascorbic acid were the most common compounds.[11]
has also been isolated from A. caesarea.[12]

Fumaric acid
has a fruit-like taste.
The salts and esters are known
as fumarates.

Dimethyl fumarate significantly reduces disability
progression in multiple sclerosis. "




Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), bolete mushrooms (specifically Boletus fomentarius var. pseudo-igniarius), lichen, and Iceland moss.

Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Fumarate is then converted by the enzyme fumarase to malate. Human skin naturally produces fumaric acid when exposed to sunlight.[citation needed]

Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle.


In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, dimethyl fumarate (BG-12, Biogen) significantly reduced relapse and disability progression in a phase 3 trial. It activates the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway, the primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress.[1]


As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and is denoted by the E number E297. Fumaric acid is a food acidulent used since 1946. It is non-toxic. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1.36 g of citric acid to every 0.91 grams of fumaric acid to add sourness, similar to the way malic acid is used. It is also used as a coagulant in stovetop pudding mixes.

It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[2] USA[3] and Australia and New Zealand[4] (where it is listed by its INS number 297)."





















Edited by wildedibles, 24 January 2014 - 07:39 AM.

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#12 1967FordTitus



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Posted 24 January 2014 - 01:23 PM

As usual, my friend, your work is beautiful, which is an understatement. Your photographs, knowledge, and insight, are just a few things that make Mycotopia the wonderful 'place' it is. Thank you, wildedibles, for all you contribute to this Universe.
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#13 wildedibles



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Posted 25 January 2014 - 02:56 AM

Thanks agian buddy you help me to stay motivated :)


I do this for my buddys who cannt see the beauty around here for themselves :) I love to share what I see and find hunting in the woods :) I think I have 2 more parts to this hunt ....then looking ahead in the pictures I have even better ones to organize still


I really want to put a book together this is a practice run to see what all I can do with it :)

#14 Discretion


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Posted 25 January 2014 - 08:06 AM

great thread wildedibles, thanks for sharing :) by any chance can you share the name of your general area of the world? it is indeed beautiful.

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#15 wildedibles



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Posted 26 January 2014 - 03:42 AM

Thanks very much :)

I am on the Ontario side of Algonquin park :)


This mushroom would have a different name in North and south America's tho ;)??


"Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) Gray is a kind of fungi belonging to Lactarius which grows in Xiaojin country of Sichuan province in China at an elevation of 3750 m. In our previous work, one novel water-soluble polysaccharide was extracted and purified from the fruiting bodies of L. deliciosus using a DEAE cellulose column chromatography and a Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Its chemical structures have been characterized[16]. The present objective is to investigate the immune activities and molecular mechanisms of the novel polysaccharide isolated from L. deliciosus." from link below





The crystal structure of polysaccharide LDG-A under the scanning electron microscope.





Immunostimulant Activity of a Novel Polysaccharide Isolated from Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) Gray

Y. Hou, X. Ding, [...], and J. Zhong

Additional article information



The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide was usually believed to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response[20]. To detect the antitumor activity of LDG-A in vivo, we used the mice transplanted S180 to evaluate the effects and the results were summarized in Table 2. The weight and the histological preparations of the vital organ in each female rat in the control group were compared to that in the treated group in order to measure the effect of the drug. LDG-A could inhibit the growth of the tumors (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory rate in mice treated with 80 mg/kg LDG-A was 68.422%, being the highest in the three doses. Furthermore, during the experiments, the appetite, activity, and coat luster of every mice in LDG-A treated groups were better than the mice treated with mannatide. Histology of immune organs such as the liver, spleen, and thymus showed that tissues appear more regular and firmer, and the tumor tissues are more loosely arranged in LDG-A group than those in control group. But there is no obvious damage to other organs, such as heart, lung, and kidney (figs. (figs.33 and and4).4). The results also showed little change in average liver weight in test groups, indicating that LDG-A did not cause serious liver damage. On the 14th day, the average tumor weight of negative control mice was 3.74 g, whereas the average tumor weight of mice in LDG-A group at dose of 80 mg/kg was 1.181g; tumor weights were also reduced in doses of 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, to 2.081 g and 1.783 g, respectively (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that the average weights of the spleens and thymus in test groups were greater in doses of 40 mg/kg than that in the mannatide mice (P<0.05), and even that of the negative control mice, indicating that LDG-A could increase the weights of immune organs in moderate doses (Table 2). These results suggested that activating immune responses in the host might be one of the mechanisms of antitumor activity of LDG-A, as various reports are available for antitumor polysaccharides.


The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide was usually believed to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response. The present study showed the immune activity of the LDG-A by assay of lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage stimulation. Proliferation of splenocytes is an indicator of immune activation. The purified polysaccharide LDG-A was able to induce proliferation of splenocytes as shown in fig. 5. LDG-A can significantly promote the proliferation of spleen cells at the concentration of 5 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml dose (P<0.05), while it can promote the proliferation of spleen cells in the concentration of 50-200 μg/ml dose range compared with the control group (P<0.05)."


"Polysaccharides are good stimulators of macrophage owing to presence of various receptors on the macrophage membrane. In this study, LDG-A also can significantly promote the phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages at the concentration 50 μg/ml dose (P<0.05), and can very significantly promote the phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages within the dose range of 100-400 μg/ml compared with the control group (P<0.05, fig. 6). The promoter capacity of both lymphocyte and macrophage cells and the concentration of the LDG-A was positively correlated.


Using the ELISA method, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α secreted by LDG-A-activated macrophages was compared with control. Obviously, the level of both cytokines secreted by LDG-A-stimulated macrophages was much higher than medium-treated macrophages. LPS of 50 mg/ml was the positive control. The level of cytokines induced by LDG-A treatment was similar to that induced by LPS at a different concentration. It is noted that the productions of IL-6 were stimulated at a high level when the concentration of LDG-A was only 50 mg/ml (Table 3).


Quantitative RT-PCR results showed a significant increase in the level of TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS mRNA in LDG-A-treated peritoneal macrophages compared to those untreated. The positive control, LPS 50 mg/ml, also promoted the expression of these genes. The expression of the genes studied (TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS) in the untreated macrophage were 0.01, 0.11 and 0.01, respectively, but increased dramatically to 0.49, 1.77, and 1.10 in a dose-dependent manner in the LDG-A-treated (400 mg/ml) cells, respectively (Table 4).


The role of activated macrophages in the defense against tumor cells has been investigated extensively over the last decades[21,22,23]. Accumulated evidence indicated that activated macrophages are able to recognize and lyse tumor cells including those that are resistant to cytostatic drugs. Therefore, macrophage activation can play a role in novel immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer[23]. Macrophages can kill the tumor cells either by macrophage-mediated tumor cytotoxicity or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and both processes end up releasing cytotoxic mediators including TNF-α, NO and reactive oxygen intermediates or phagocytosis[24]. TNF-α is one of most important mediators involved in tumor cell killing by the induction of multiple intracellular pathways, such as the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates in mitochondria preceding plasma membrane permeabilization[25] and induction of iNOS expression. Ultimately, these processes can lead to cell death. LDG-A could increase the secretion of TNF-α from macrophage and the expression of TNF-α mRNA in vitro. The toxic effects of NO and its derivatives on target cells are due to several mechanisms[26]. Our results demonstrated that LDG-A increased NO release and induced expression of iNOS gene to several folds in vitro. It is rational to assume that the release of TNF-α and NO of macrophage which is activated by LDG-A may be the important mechanism of the antitumor effect of LDG-A. However, further evidence is required. It is well known that IL-6 is also considered as a major immune and inflammatory mediator in cancer. This research indicated that macrophages were induced to enhance the secretion and expression of the cytokines IL-6 by LDG-A. These results point that these cytokines may be involved in the antitumor effect of LDG-A." ............



Edited by wildedibles, 26 January 2014 - 04:55 AM.

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#16 wildedibles



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Posted 26 January 2014 - 05:13 AM



"Author information
  • Centro para la Calidad de los Alimentos, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Campus Universitario Duques de Soria, c/ Jose Tudela s/n, 42004, Soria, Spain.

A novel glucan-type polysaccharide has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lactarius deliciosus. Two successive extractions (cold aqueous extraction at 25°C and hot aqueous extraction at 100°C) were performed, and the same polysaccharide was obtained in both fractions. The purity of the polysaccharide was evaluated by size exclusion chromatography. The SEC chromatogram showed a unique peak with a molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa. Analysis of the chain composition revealed that the polysaccharide was composed of glucose. Methylation analysis and NMR experiments showed that the glucan-type carbohydrate contained a main chain consisting of α-(1→3)-Glcp units with α-(1→4)-linked branches every sixth glucose residue.

PMID: 24266381 [PubMed - in process]"






"Author information
  • Centro para la Calidad de los Alimentos, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Campus Universitario Duques de Soria, c/José Tudela s/n, 42004 Soria, Spain. Electronic address: [email protected]

Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ergosterol, Ergosteryl ester, Fungi, HPLC, Mushroom

PMID: 24206714 [PubMed - in process]"

Edited by wildedibles, 26 January 2014 - 05:15 AM.

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#17 wildedibles



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Posted 26 January 2014 - 05:41 AM



Lactarius deterrimus, also known as false saffron milkcap, is a species of fungus in the family Russulaceae. The fungus produces medium-sized fruit bodies (mushrooms) with orangish caps up to 12 cm (4.7 in) wide that develop green spots in old age or if injured. Its orange-coloured latex stains maroon within 30 minutes. Lactarius deterrimus is a mycorrhizal fungus that associates with Norway spruce and bearberry. The species is distributed in Europe, but has also found in parts of Asia. Research has shown that the similar North American species from the United States and Mexico is not closely related to the European species. Fruit bodies appear between late June and November, usually in spruce forests. Although the fungus is edible—like all Lactarius mushrooms from the section Deliciosi—its taste is often bitter, and it is not highly valued. The fruit bodies are used as source of food for the larvae of several insect species. Lactarius deterrimus can be distinguished from similar Lactarius species by difference in the mycorrhizal host or latex colour.




Several molecular phylogenetic analyses show that L. deterrimus, L. sanguifluus, Lactarius vinosus and L. fennoscandicus form a group of related species, which might include the North American species L. paradoxus and L. miniatosporus. Although L. deliciosus var. deterrimus qualifies as synonym for L. deterrimus, the families, which had been characterized in North America as Lactarius deliciosus var. deterrimus, are not closely related with the European types. They also seem not to form a monophyletic group.[9]

Lactarius deterrimus belongs to the section Deliciosi of the genus Lactarius. According to molecular phylogenetics studies,[9] this section forms a definite phylogenetic group within the milk cap relatives. Deliciosi species mainly have an orange or reddish-coloured latex and taste mild to slightly bitter. They are strict mycorrhizal associates of conifers. The next closest relative of L. deterrimus is L. fennoscandicus.[10]





Lactarius deterrimus is an edible mushroom, but is much less appreciated than the similar L. deliciosus. The first tastes slightly bitter and is often infested by maggots.[3][12] Like L. deliciosus, this fungus is mainly stir-fried in butter or oil; if it is cooked in water, the flesh becomes very soft. Young fruit bodies can be also pickled, or dried for later use.[25] As the fungus is often heavily infested by maggots, skilled mushroom pickers prefer young fruit bodies. The urine discolours to red if a large amount of milk caps are eaten, but this is entirely harmless and is not evidence for an impairment to health. The red-coloured azulene compounds, ingested with the mushroom food, are more or less excreted with the urine.[2]


The milk cap's fruit bodies have a characteristic orange milk juice (latex). The guaiane sesquiterpenes are responsible for the orange colour. Sesquiterpenes are terpenes composed of three isoprene units and therefore have 15 carbon atoms. Sesquiterpenes are widely distributed in nature and are found in plants as well as animals, for example in the juvenile hormone of insects. Plants use sesquiterpenes as a defense compound against insects. According to some studies, sesquiterpenes have antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, or immunostimulant effects.[26]

Young, uninjured fruit bodies of L. deterrimus have sesquiterpenoides in the form of fatty acid dihydroazulene-esters. About 85% of the yellow-coloured dihydroazulene are esterified with stearic acid and about 15% with linoleic acid. If the fruit body is injured, the free sesquiterpene – a dihydroazulene alcohol – is released enzymatically. Several products are produced from it through oxidation: the yellow-coloured aldehyde delicial (1-formyl-6, 7-dihydro-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene), the purple-coloured aldehyde lactarovioline (1-formyl-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene), and the blue-coloured alcohol deterrol (1-hydroxymethyl-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene). The milk is first maroon through mixing with the different colours and discolours green. The dihydroazulene alcohol and delicial are unstable compounds, which react to form further products. Delicial polymerises particularly slight.[27]"


neat info :)




"Lactarius deliciosus, commonly known as the Saffron milk cap, Red pine mushroom, is one of the best known members of the large milk-cap genus Lactarius in the order Russulales. It is found in Europe and has been accidentally introduced to other countries under conifers and can be found growing in pine plantations. Michael Kuo, primary founder of the MushroomExpert website, cites Belgian mycologist Jorinde Nuytinck who determined that the mushroom is a "genetically, morphologically, and ecologically distinct European species that does not occur in North America".[1]

A fresco in the Roman town of Herculaneum appears to depict Lactarius deliciosus and is one of the earliest pieces of art to illustrate a fungus.[2]

When grown in liquid culture, the mycelium of this fungus produces a mixture of fatty acids and various compounds such as chroman-4-one, Anofinic acid, 3-hydroxyacetylindole, ergosterol, and cyclic dipeptides.[3]"




Ok this is getting very complicated what is the name of this mushroom in America? Not closley related to the ones in Europe it can possibly contain different constituents maybe the same ones maybe totally different????


GGGGGggggRRRrrrr lol ;)


when I get frustrated looking for a name I go here :) and Mushroom expert they explain so many things for helping you find your mushroom :)




"Lactarius thyinos

[ Agaricomycetes > Russulales > Russulaceae > Lactarius . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

What a beautiful mushroom! Lactarius thyinos is found in cedar bogs in the northeastern U.S. and in Canada. It is easily identified: it is the only species of Lactarius that has orange milk and does not bruise green. It is often found growing alongside Lactarius deliciosus var. deterrimus, which also has orange milk and can look similar. Simply handling the two mushrooms will differentiate them, however; Lactarius deliciosus readily bruises green on all parts.


Ecology: Mycorrhizal with conifers, usually with northern white cedar; growing scattered or gregariously; summer and fall; northeastern North America and the upper Great Lakes region.

Cap: 3-9 cm; at first convex, becoming flat, with a shallow central depression, or vase-shaped; slimy or thinly slimy when fresh; the margin arched; bald; zoned with concentric bands of carrot orange and paler orange.

Gills: Attached to the stem or running slightly down it; close or nearly distant; orange; bruising brownish.

Stem: 4-8 cm long; 1.5-2 cm thick; orange; more or less equal, or tapering somewhat to base; bald; hollow; sometimes slimy when young; often with a whitish sheen above; sometimes bruising dull red or brownish; sometimes with wide, shallow potholes.

Flesh: Thin; white to orangish.

Milk: Orange; unchanging when exposed; slowly staining tissues red.

Odor and Taste: Odor faintly fragrant; taste mild.

Chemical Reactions: KOH negative on cap surface.

Spore Print: Whitish to pale yellow.

Microscopic Features: Spores 9-12 x 7.5-9 µ; broadly ellipsoid to subglobose; ornamentation 0.5-1.0 µ high, as amyloid warts and ridges forming partial reticula. Pleuromacrocystidia scattered to abundant; subfusoid to subcylindric; to about 100 x 10 µ. Cheilocystidia fusoid; to about 60 x 10 µ. Pileipellis an ixocutis.

REFERENCES: A. H. Smith, 1960. (Hesler & Smith, 1979; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1979; Arora, 1986; Phillips, 1991/2005; Barron, 1999; McNeil, 2006; Nuytinck et al., 2006; Kuo, 2007.) Herb. Kuo 09029403, 09050201."


location: North America edibility: Edible fungus colour: Yellow, Red or redish or pink, Orange normal size: 5-15cm cap type: Convex to shield shaped stem type: Simple stem flesh: Flesh exudes coloured latex (milk) when cut, Flesh discolours when cut, bruised or damaged, Flesh granular or brittle, Mushroom slimy or sticky spore colour: White, cream or yellowish habitat: Grows in woods, Grows on the ground space.gif

Lactarius thyinos Smith. Cap 3-9cm across, convex with the disc soon becoming depressed, and then broadly funnel-shaped; carrot orange to salmon orange with concentric zones, weathering grayish in age; sticky then thinly slimy, smooth. Gills broadly adnate to decurrent, close becoming subdistant in age; bright orange becoming paler, with bruised areas staining dull red. Stem 40-80 x 8-20mm, hollow, fragile; same color as gills or paler, staining dull red where cut; often with a whitish sheen above. Flesh thin; orange-buff when cut or dull red at base of stem. Latex cadmium orange slowly staining dull red. Odor faintly fragrant. Taste mild. Spores subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, amyloid, 9-12 x 7.5-9μ; ornamented with a partial or broken reticulum and some isolated warts, prominences 0.5-0.7μ high. Deposit pale yellow. Habitat scattered or in groups in woods of thuja evergreens and in bogs and swamps. Common. Found widely distributed in northeastern North America. Season July-October. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.)"

Edited by wildedibles, 26 January 2014 - 07:00 AM.

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#18 wildedibles



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Posted 27 January 2014 - 06:34 AM

Here is some pubmed articles on Latarius mushrooms and some other medicinal wild mushrooms as well

They show the constituents in this mushroom that might be helpful for some conditions .... I am placing the ones I found here together but these mushrooms being found all over the world could have different compositions but it might give us clues into why and how they might be helpful :)




"J Med Food. 2013 Aug;16(8):760-4. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.0297.

Antioxidant properties of the wild edible mushroom Lactarius salmonicolor.


The fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lactarius salmonicolor (Russulaceae) collected from the wild were extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and evaluated for their antioxidant capacity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Additionally, their total phenolic content was evaluated by a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extract showed the most potent radical scavenging activity (inhibition of 36.7% of DPPH at 3 mg/mL and 6.8 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry extract), and was further fractionated. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity found to be significant higher in the fractions of increased polarity. The phytochemical investigation which was performed by chromatographic and spectrometric techniques led to the isolation of nine compounds from the methanol extract and the identification of 10 fatty acids and fatty acids esters from the dichloromethane extract. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of isolated compounds showed p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4) to be the most active. Among the various compounds found, the rare azulene type 7-acetyl-4-methylazulene-1-carboxylic acid (1) has been identified, which had been isolated only once before from L. deliciosus. Therefore, this compound seems to have some chemotaxonomic value for Lactrarius species exuding orange to red milk.

PMID: 23957359 [PubMed - in process]  "
"J Environ Sci Health B. 2013;48(4):308-17. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2013.743799.
Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius.


The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively.


The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies,


while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus.


BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

PMID: 23374050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]"
"Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 May;55:378-85. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.010. Epub 2013 Jan 24.
Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece.

Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed.


Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin.


In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms.


All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity.


It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 23354393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]"



"J Environ Sci Health B. 2013;48(1):69-81. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2012.716733.
Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010.


The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined.


The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn).


In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively.


The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1).


Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

PMID: 23030443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]"

Edited by wildedibles, 27 January 2014 - 07:12 AM.

#19 wildedibles



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Posted 29 January 2014 - 07:15 AM


This orchid is still living after being bent it will still set seed as well making this one tuff orchid :) and easy to spread around the area  These orchids are popping up everywhere and I didnt even knew we had these


I love the purple to these flowers it was growing deeper in the woods the white one was growing beside the road in more light








See the big fat seed pods starting to fatten up :) they r full of tiny tiny seeds






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#20 1967FordTitus



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Posted 29 January 2014 - 07:33 AM

Do you know the ID of this tuff beauty?
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