Lactarius deterrimus, also known as false saffron milkcap, is a species of fungus in the family Russulaceae. The fungus produces medium-sized fruit bodies (mushrooms) with orangish caps up to 12 cm (4.7 in) wide that develop green spots in old age or if injured. Its orange-coloured latex stains maroon within 30 minutes. Lactarius deterrimus is a mycorrhizal fungus that associates with Norway spruce and bearberry. The species is distributed in Europe, but has also found in parts of Asia. Research has shown that the similar North American species from the United States and Mexico is not closely related to the European species. Fruit bodies appear between late June and November, usually in spruce forests. Although the fungus is edible—like all Lactarius mushrooms from the section Deliciosi—its taste is often bitter, and it is not highly valued. The fruit bodies are used as source of food for the larvae of several insect species. Lactarius deterrimus can be distinguished from similar Lactarius species by difference in the mycorrhizal host or latex colour.
Several molecular phylogenetic analyses show that L. deterrimus, L. sanguifluus, Lactarius vinosus and L. fennoscandicus form a group of related species, which might include the North American species L. paradoxus and L. miniatosporus. Although L. deliciosus var. deterrimus qualifies as synonym for L. deterrimus, the families, which had been characterized in North America as Lactarius deliciosus var. deterrimus, are not closely related with the European types. They also seem not to form a monophyletic group.
Lactarius deterrimus belongs to the section Deliciosi of the genus Lactarius. According to molecular phylogenetics studies, this section forms a definite phylogenetic group within the milk cap relatives. Deliciosi species mainly have an orange or reddish-coloured latex and taste mild to slightly bitter. They are strict mycorrhizal associates of conifers. The next closest relative of L. deterrimus is L. fennoscandicus.
Lactarius deterrimus is an edible mushroom, but is much less appreciated than the similar L. deliciosus. The first tastes slightly bitter and is often infested by maggots. Like L. deliciosus, this fungus is mainly stir-fried in butter or oil; if it is cooked in water, the flesh becomes very soft. Young fruit bodies can be also pickled, or dried for later use. As the fungus is often heavily infested by maggots, skilled mushroom pickers prefer young fruit bodies. The urine discolours to red if a large amount of milk caps are eaten, but this is entirely harmless and is not evidence for an impairment to health. The red-coloured azulene compounds, ingested with the mushroom food, are more or less excreted with the urine.
The milk cap's fruit bodies have a characteristic orange milk juice (latex). The guaiane sesquiterpenes are responsible for the orange colour. Sesquiterpenes are terpenes composed of three isoprene units and therefore have 15 carbon atoms. Sesquiterpenes are widely distributed in nature and are found in plants as well as animals, for example in the juvenile hormone of insects. Plants use sesquiterpenes as a defense compound against insects. According to some studies, sesquiterpenes have antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, or immunostimulant effects.
Young, uninjured fruit bodies of L. deterrimus have sesquiterpenoides in the form of fatty acid dihydroazulene-esters. About 85% of the yellow-coloured dihydroazulene are esterified with stearic acid and about 15% with linoleic acid. If the fruit body is injured, the free sesquiterpene – a dihydroazulene alcohol – is released enzymatically. Several products are produced from it through oxidation: the yellow-coloured aldehyde delicial (1-formyl-6, 7-dihydro-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene), the purple-coloured aldehyde lactarovioline (1-formyl-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene), and the blue-coloured alcohol deterrol (1-hydroxymethyl-4-methyl-7-isopropenylazulene). The milk is first maroon through mixing with the different colours and discolours green. The dihydroazulene alcohol and delicial are unstable compounds, which react to form further products. Delicial polymerises particularly slight."
neat info :)
"Lactarius deliciosus, commonly known as the Saffron milk cap, Red pine mushroom, is one of the best known members of the large milk-cap genus Lactarius in the order Russulales. It is found in Europe and has been accidentally introduced to other countries under conifers and can be found growing in pine plantations. Michael Kuo, primary founder of the MushroomExpert website, cites Belgian mycologist Jorinde Nuytinck who determined that the mushroom is a "genetically, morphologically, and ecologically distinct European species that does not occur in North America".
A fresco in the Roman town of Herculaneum appears to depict Lactarius deliciosus and is one of the earliest pieces of art to illustrate a fungus.
When grown in liquid culture, the mycelium of this fungus produces a mixture of fatty acids and various compounds such as chroman-4-one, Anofinic acid, 3-hydroxyacetylindole, ergosterol, and cyclic dipeptides."
Ok this is getting very complicated what is the name of this mushroom in America? Not closley related to the ones in Europe it can possibly contain different constituents maybe the same ones maybe totally different????
GGGGGggggRRRrrrr lol ;)
when I get frustrated looking for a name I go here :) and Mushroom expert they explain so many things for helping you find your mushroom :)
[ Agaricomycetes > Russulales > Russulaceae > Lactarius . . . ]
by Michael Kuo
What a beautiful mushroom! Lactarius thyinos is found in cedar bogs in the northeastern U.S. and in Canada. It is easily identified: it is the only species of Lactarius that has orange milk and does not bruise green. It is often found growing alongside Lactarius deliciosus var. deterrimus, which also has orange milk and can look similar. Simply handling the two mushrooms will differentiate them, however; Lactarius deliciosus readily bruises green on all parts.
Ecology: Mycorrhizal with conifers, usually with northern white cedar; growing scattered or gregariously; summer and fall; northeastern North America and the upper Great Lakes region.
Cap: 3-9 cm; at first convex, becoming flat, with a shallow central depression, or vase-shaped; slimy or thinly slimy when fresh; the margin arched; bald; zoned with concentric bands of carrot orange and paler orange.
Gills: Attached to the stem or running slightly down it; close or nearly distant; orange; bruising brownish.
Stem: 4-8 cm long; 1.5-2 cm thick; orange; more or less equal, or tapering somewhat to base; bald; hollow; sometimes slimy when young; often with a whitish sheen above; sometimes bruising dull red or brownish; sometimes with wide, shallow potholes.
Flesh: Thin; white to orangish.
Milk: Orange; unchanging when exposed; slowly staining tissues red.
Odor and Taste: Odor faintly fragrant; taste mild.
Chemical Reactions: KOH negative on cap surface.
Spore Print: Whitish to pale yellow.
Microscopic Features: Spores 9-12 x 7.5-9 µ; broadly ellipsoid to subglobose; ornamentation 0.5-1.0 µ high, as amyloid warts and ridges forming partial reticula. Pleuromacrocystidia scattered to abundant; subfusoid to subcylindric; to about 100 x 10 µ. Cheilocystidia fusoid; to about 60 x 10 µ. Pileipellis an ixocutis.
REFERENCES: A. H. Smith, 1960. (Hesler & Smith, 1979; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1979; Arora, 1986; Phillips, 1991/2005; Barron, 1999; McNeil, 2006; Nuytinck et al., 2006; Kuo, 2007.) Herb. Kuo 09029403, 09050201."
Yellow, Red or redish or pink, Orange
Convex to shield shaped
Flesh exudes coloured latex (milk) when cut, Flesh discolours when cut, bruised or damaged, Flesh granular or brittle, Mushroom slimy or sticky
White, cream or yellowish
Grows in woods, Grows on the ground
Lactarius thyinos Smith. Cap 3-9cm across, convex with the disc soon becoming depressed, and then broadly funnel-shaped; carrot orange to salmon orange with concentric zones, weathering grayish in age; sticky then thinly slimy, smooth. Gills broadly adnate to decurrent, close becoming subdistant in age; bright orange becoming paler, with bruised areas staining dull red. Stem 40-80 x 8-20mm, hollow, fragile; same color as gills or paler, staining dull red where cut; often with a whitish sheen above. Flesh thin; orange-buff when cut or dull red at base of stem. Latex cadmium orange slowly staining dull red. Odor faintly fragrant. Taste mild. Spores subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, amyloid, 9-12 x 7.5-9μ; ornamented with a partial or broken reticulum and some isolated warts, prominences 0.5-0.7μ high. Deposit pale yellow. Habitat scattered or in groups in woods of thuja evergreens and in bogs and swamps. Common. Found widely distributed in northeastern North America. Season July-October. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.)"
Edited by wildedibles, 26 January 2014 - 07:00 AM.