I hesitate to open this can of worms, because of the obvious and disagreeable danger of degenerating into religious debate, however I am compiling my short list of essential books for my daughter to read and would welcome some ideas. I am looking for books that illuminate fundamental thought patterns, rather than just helpful books to read.
THE REPUBLIC BY PLATO
THE ART OF WAR BY SUN TZU
THE PRINCE BY MACHIAVELLI
PRINCIPIA BY NEWTON
ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY DARWIN
HOW TO WIN FRIENDS AND INFLUENCE PEOPLE BY CARNEGNIE
EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF CROWDS BY MACKAY